SUKHOTHAI KINGDOM OF THAILAND ( FATHER GOVERNS CHILDREN )
As we all know that during KING KANISHKA of the KUSHAN DYNASTY in the 2nd century AD in INDIA , there emerged two sects in BUDDHISM : 1. HINYANA ; and 2. MAHAYANA . In CAMBODIA under which THAILAND existed during the time came under the influence of the HINYANA sect . HIUEN- TSANG , a CHINESE traveler who came in INDIA in 629 AD during the period of HARSHVARDHANA of KANNAUJ in the 7th century AD , has written that he sent a group of BUDDHIST MONKS to SIAM after the congregation of BUDDHIST MONKS in CAMBODIA . When the decline of BUDDHISM started in INDIA , We can find such influences in SIAM also . As a result , HINDUISM started spreading in SIAM . It is said that two CAMBODIAN Kings : 1. JAYVARMAN-II ; and 2. SURYAVARMAN- II spread HINDUISM/BRAHMANISM in CAMBODIA and in this region of which SIAM was its part . During their period only ANKOR-VHAT , one of the biggest HINDU TEMPLE of the world , came into existence in the ANKOR-VHAT city of CAMBODIA . That’s why , W. A. R. WOOD , in his book HISTORY OF SIAM has written that from 8th to 11th century AD , the impact of HINDUISM and the BRAHMINICAL culture could be seen in SIAM .
After disintegration of the weakened KHMER Empire , the city-states gradually started becoming independent . As a result , SUKHOTHAI KINGDOM was established under Kingship of SRI INDRADITYA in 1238 AD . He was so benevolent a King that the THAI historians calls his period of governance as FATHER GOVERNS CHILDREN . Now anybody could bring one’s problems to the King directly . There was a bell in front of his palace for this purpose . RAM KHAMHAENG , the great ( 1279 to 1298 ) was an other important King of this Dynasty who , according to many historians on the subject , introduced THERAVADA BUDDHISM and initial THAI script to the Kingdom . He also developed relationships with YUAN CHINA through which the techniques to produce and export ceramics like SANGKHALOK WARES were brought into his Kingdom . The SANGKHALOK CERAMIC WARES were a ancient THAI traditional ceramic WARES , decorated with traditional motifs and fired at 1150°C to 1280°C to make them into pottery , jar , spoon and ceramic doll . But the Kingdom fell into decline after the reign of RAM KHAMHAENG due to frequent invasions by the nearest polity as such .
In 1349 AD , SUKHOTHAI KINGDOM was invaded by a neighboring THAI polity called AYUTTHAYA KINGDOM during the reign of LI THAI ( MAHA THAMMARACHA-1 ) . But it remained a tributary state of AYUTTHAYA till its annexation in 1438 AD after the death of BOROMMAPAN . However, SUKHOTHAI is generally considered as the first THAI Kingdom in the THAI historiography . Etymologically speaking , the ENGLISH word SUKHOTHAI is virtually ROMANIZATION of the THAI word as such . And the ruins of the Kingdom’s capital , located about 12 KM outside the modern town of SUKHOTHAI THANI in SUKHOTHAI province of THAILAND are still preserved as the SUKHOTHAI Historical Park . And recently it has been designated as the World Heritage Site by the UNESCO .
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .
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