Elements of materialism can also be traced in JAINISM & BUDDHISM . JAINISM , as a philosophy ( not as a religion ) , believes in the atomistic theory of the structure of the universe . All the physical elements of the world are the result of PRAMANA or atoms . Being an agglomeration of atoms , the matter also has these qualities of being eternal , infinite , indestructible and untcreated . But as against the Greek Philosopher LUCRETIUS , the atomistic theory of JAINISM believes that each atom has two kinds of qualities — primary and secondary . LUCRETIUS , on the other hand , has attributed only one quality in atom i.e primary one . To him , the second quality emerges out of the merging of atoms as such . JAINISM , further , considers KARMA as material ( pudgalika ) . To it , KARMA represents ‘ matter in intangible from ‘.
The ultimate reality of the world is substance — extended and unextend . Extended substance is , further , divided into JIVA ( living ) and AJIVA ( non-living ) . JIVA has Conciousness, while AJIVA are matter ( PUDGALA ) like Space , Time , Dharma ( in motion ) and Adharma ( in rest ) . Unextended substance , on the other hand , to JAINISM , may be called as ‘ eternal , infinite , immobile , and amorphous ‘. JAINISM , further , believes in two types of changes in substance —- The first is loss of old quality and formation of the new one , and the second is change of form . Thus , JAINISM , believes in the material existence of this world as such .
BUDDHISM , also believes in atomistic theory of the existence of the whole world of things . Whatever exists i.e physical , psyche and Conciousness are consisted of atoms as such . But to BUDDHISM , the atoms are not substantive as the world is consisted of an unlimited number of qualities like things , objects and phenomenon . Any quality , thus , is a flare . Every quality is an instantaneous flare . However , the philosophical foundation of BUDDHISM is the theory of DHARMAS . As per this theory , ‘ all nature is a single stream ‘ consists of atoms ‘. The things which really exist can’t cease , but the everything which consists of infinitesimal ( a flare ) may cease to exist one day as such . Thus , all phenomenon of nature , both — material and spiritual can’t be considered as a real being . Only the eternal and immutable substance is the essence of all phenomenon .
However , there is no unanimity among BUDDHISTS regarding the nature of that essence . According to SARVASTIVADINS school of BUDDHISM , it is of personal in nature, for each of the elements . For YOGACARAS , another shool of BUDDHISM , all elements of — internal or external life , follow from a single common essence i.e ‘ consciousness treasury ‘. On the other hand , the MADHYAMA school of SUNYAVADA of NAGARJUNA believes that the above mentioned two schools of thought are one sided . To MADHYAMA school of thought , all objects and phenomenon of the surrounding world can be approached from four standpoints: 1. By perceiving it through our sense organs , 2. By the eternal stream or whirlwind , 3. By the phenomenon i.e simultaneously is and is not i.e ‘it both exists and does not exist’ , and 4. By the belief that neither is nor is not i.e ‘ it both exists and nor does not exist ‘. NAGARJUNA propounded the theory of dependent origin i.e ( PRATITYA-SAMUTPADA ) . To this theory , ‘ only that object truly exists which exists by itself ‘ i.e not caused by some outside factors as such .
Despite this , we see there exists no phenomenon without causes in this world around us . As there is no absolutely independent things in this world . Because the existence of any object in the world always depends on certain conditions that are not directly connected with the object itself . They are external as such . To NAGARJUNA , experience and reasoning are not true source of knowledge . The evidence or data of our Pramana ( proof ) is not reliable . To prove something true we require proof . For that something else which is not true in itself , can’t make our perception true . But question is how do we prove the truth of something else ? For that we require something i.e the existence of a third something else . And thus series is endless . The foundation of all that is , said NAGARJUNA , can’t be said to exist and neither can it be said not to exist , can be considered as something Intermediate ( MADHYAMA ) , the only suitable word for it may be void ( SUNYA ) . He , further , argued that there is no DHARMA that is not SUNYA . Thus , the BUDDHISM is itself the best example of the atomistic theory of the existence of this world . After interpretation of physical phenomenon existing in the Indian Philosophy , we , in our next blog , will move towards the METAPHYSICAL phenomenon existing in the Indian Philosophy as such …..etc .
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG IS TEXT BOOKS AS SUCH …..ARBIND KUMAR , THE BLOGGER .