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THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-75

INDONESIA SERIES -8

THE DUTCH RESPONSE TO THE NATIONAL AWAKENING IN INDONESIA

The DUTCH responded to the growing national awakening among the INDONESIAN people after the first world war with repressive measures . The repression of the nationalist movement led to many arrests . SUKARNO (1901-70) , who became the first President of INDONESIA in 1945 , was imprisoned for political activities on 29th December 1929 . MOHAMMAD HATTA , later became the first Vice-President of INDONESIA , was arrested and put behind the bars . Similarly , on the same date SUTAN SJAHRIR , who later became the first Prime Minister of INDONESIA , was also arrested so that national movement could be frustrated . The DUTCH strongly repressed all attempts at change . This repression led to the growth of the COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDONESIA (PKI) which had evolved in 1924 by the INDONESIAN communists who were associated with the THIRD INTERNATIONAL . The PKI-led revolt against DUTCH colonialism rocked INDONESIA from 1926 to 1927 . It was followed by strikes of the urban workers . However , the the revolt and the strikes were put down by the DUTCH government with arresting of about 13,000 nationalists and Communists of the country . About 4,500 people were given prison sentences . After about 12 years , SUKARNO was released in December 1931 to be re-arrested again on 1st August 1933 .

JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF THE DUTCH EAST INDIES

The JAPANESE invaded the DUTCH EAST INDIES during the second world war and occupied it . It , now , started encouraging the previously suppressed nationalist movement . During the second world war in May 1940 , NAZI GERMANY occupied the NETHERLANDS . But the DUTCH GOVERNMENT-IN-EXILE continued to control the DUTCH EAST INDIES from its base in LONDON . The DUTCH EAST INDIES , declaring a state of seige , tried to redirect consignments of export for JAPAN to the US and BRITAIN . When the negotiations between JAPAN and DUTCH for supply of aviation fuel failed in June 1941 , JAPAN started its conquest of South-East ASIA in December 1941 . In the meantime a faction from SUMATRA sought for JAPANESE assistance to revolt against the DUTCH war time government . The JAPANESE military defeated the last DUTCH forces in the EAST INDIES in March 1942 . Simultaneously , in July 1942 the INDONESIAN leader SUKARNO accepted JAPAN’S offer to rally public in support of the JAPANESE war efforts in the EAST INDIES . For that SUKARNO and MOHAMMAD HATTA were decorated by the JAPANESE Monarch in 1943 . However , the JAPANESE occupation of the DUTCH EAST INDIES experienced torture , sex slavery , arbitrary arrest and execution , and other war crimes . Thousands of people were taken away from INDONESIA as ROMUSHA ( WAR LABOURERS ) either suffered or died due to ill treatment and starvation . Main targets of JAPANESE occupation were people of DUTCH origin or of mixed DUTCH-INDONESIAN origin .

INVESTIGATING COMMITEE FOR PREPARATORY WORK FOR INDEPENDENCE ( BPUPK ) OF INDONESIA

Now the entire DUTCH EAST INDIES were under the JAPANESE occupation . The JAPANESE , in March 1945 , established the INVESTIGATING COMMITEE FOR PREPARATORY WORK FOR INDEPENDENCE ( BPUPK ) . It was meant for establishment of independence of the areas under the control of the JAPANESE 16th Army . The BPUPK held two Plenary Meetings : 1. THE FIRST WAS FROM 28 MAY TO 1 JUNE , 1945 ; and 2. THE SECOND WAS BETWEEN 10 AND 17 JULY , 1945 . According to BENEDICT ANDERSON , an ANGLO-IRISH political scientist and historian who taught in the US , ‘ this was intended as concession to INDONESIAN nationalists , and the JAPANESE hoped it would redirect nationalist enthusiasm towards harmless arguments between factions .’ The membership of the Committee was to comprise of 30 INDONESIANS , 3 JAPANESE , and one representative each of the CHINESE , ARAB and DUTCH Ethnic Groups . The board agreed to the two stage of JAPANESE Plan of inivestigating commitee for JAVA followed by a preparation committee for all of INDONESIA . The committee also agreed that the territories of independent state would not be discussed . An interesting thing was that the BPUPK eventually met in the building called VOLKSRAAD ( PEOPLE’S COUNCIL ) set up by the DUTCH for the governance of the DUTCH EAST INDIES . The JAPANESE appointed 59 members representing the major groups in JAVA and MADURA on 29th April , 1945 , on the birthday of the JAPANESE Emperor . This included 8 JAPANESE including one of the Vice-chairman . The Chairman was Dr. RADJIMAN WEDIODININGRAT and the Vice-chairman was the JAPANESE called ICHIBANGASE YOSHIO . Unfortunate thing with YOSHIO was that he didn’t know the INDONESIAN language as such . At its first meeting in May , SOEPOMO , a lawyer by profession and who became Minister of Law and Justice in independent INDONESIA , spoke of national integration and against personal individualism . While MUHAMMAD YAMIN was of the opinion that BRITISH BORNEO , BRITISH MALAYA , PORTUGUESE TIMOR and all the pre-war territories of the DUTCH EAST INDIES should be brought under the United INDONESIA as such . The committee drafted the Constitution of INDONESIA in 1945 . When SUKARNO , MOHAMMAD HATTA and RADJIMAN WEDIODININGRAT were flown to meet MARSHAL HISAICHI TERAUCHI , the Commander of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group of the IMPERIAL JAPANESE ARMY on 9th August 1945 , they were told that JAPAN had intended to announce INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE on 24th August 1945 . However , after JAPANESE surrender during the second world war , SUKARNO ultimately proclaimed INDONESIA’S INDEPENDENCE on 17th August 1945 . But painful thing was that , as per UN report , four million people died in INDONESIA as a result of the JAPANESE occupation as such .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ……………..

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THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-74

NATIONAL AWAKENING IN INDONESIA (INDONESIA SERIES -7)

In the first half of the 20th century , a sense of awakening in the INDONESIAN people came on the surface during which people from many parts of the archipelago of INDONESIA first began to develop a national consciousness as INDONESIAN as such . A unified political unity could be seen among the people of INDONESIA at the first time , as new organizations and leadership developed in the first half of the 20th century . The ETHNIC POLICY under the NETHERLANDS government helped in the creation of an educated INDONESIAN elite class which started to write/speak their free views . Now Equality , Liberty and Justice — all these sublime political values became their perfect driving force against the colonial government as such . Apart from all that , several other factors that gave rise to nationalist consciousness among INDONESIAN people were as follows : 1. THE GROWTH OF INDIGENOUS PRINT MEDIA ; 2. MASSIVE URBANIZATION ; 3. THE GROWTH OF COMMUNISM ; 4. THE GROWTH OF ISLAM ; 5. DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION ; 6. DEVELOPMENT OF MASS ENTERTAINMENT LIKE FILM , THEATER AND KRONKON MUSIC ; and 7. SUFFERING UNDER DUTCH APARTHEID . Moreover , leading intellectuals like KARTINI , TIRTO and SEMAUN raised their voice for unified archipelago of INDONESIA . These leaders sought to embrace modernity , freedom , nation and independence . This is referred in the INDONESIAN history as the INDONESIAN NATIONAL REVIVAL . However , indigenous voices were ruthlessly suppressed by the DUTCH colonial government . They disallowed the freedom of speech and the freedom of assembly to the people of INDONESIA . And such movements were ruthlessly suppressed.

BUDI UTOMO AND INDONESIA

BUDI UTOMO was the first political society formed on 20th May 1908 in the DUTCH EAST INDIES . This political society is considered instrumental to the beginning of the INDONESIAN NATIONAL AWAKENING . The founder of BUDI UTOMO was a pensioned government doctor who for the first time felt that native intellectuals should improve education and culture among the people . The first congress of the society was held in May 1908 under the leadership of Dr. WAHIDIN SOEDIROHOESODO . The congress was mostly a gathering of students in BATAVIA . But the organization’s first major gathering was held in October 1908 in YOGYAKARTA . However , its membership was limited to an upper class elite of natives , government officials and intellectuals only . It was largely confined in JAVA and among JAVANESE . A few branches , however , expanded the activities of the society in native commerce and industry . The main aim of the society was to further popular education among the masses . TIPTO MANGOENCOESOEMO , a prominent INDONESIAN independence leader , a JAVANESE physician , and SUKARNO’S political mentor, along with ERNEST DOUWES DEKKER , a JAPANESE journalist and SOEWARDI SOERJANINGRAT who later on founded a political party called INDISCHE PARTY in 1912 with a goal to achieve a self-government of the DUTCH EAST INDIES . It expanded the scope of the society to include more working class and people from outside JAVA . It grew in 1910 with 10,000 members enrolled in 40 branches . At the same time , it received official recognition from the colonial government . BUDI UTOMO’S primary aim was not political , but later shifted toward political aims as it sent representatives in the conservative VOLKSRAAD ( THE PEOPLE’S COUNCIL ) . It also sent its members in the provincial council of JAVA . Though BUDI UTOMO was officially dissolved in 1935 , yet it was marked as the first nationalist movement in the early 20th century in INDONESIA .

SAREKAT ISLAM AND INDONESIA

SAREKAT ISLAM was an INDONESIAN socio-political organization founded in 1911 . It served as a cooperative of MUSLIM JAVANESE BATIK traders with an aim to compete with CHINESE-INDONESIAN big traders . However , it rapidly evolved into a nationalist political organization . It demanded self-government against the DUTCH led colonial regime . It got popular support during 1910s and 1920s . And in 1916 , it had altogether 80 branches and total 350,000 membership as such . Its leader from 1911 to 1912 was SAMANHUDI ; from 1912 to 1934 was OMAR SAID TJOKROAMINOTO ; and from 1934 to 1940 was ABHIKUSNO TJOKROSUJOSO . And its headquarters was at SURABAYA . However , eventually there emerged a dissent within SAREKAT ISLAM . The conflict between the ISLAMIC MODERATES and RADICAL COMMUNISTS led to split in the organization in 1921 . And the Communist members founded a separate entity known as the SAREKAT ISLAM MERAH ( RED ISLAMIC ASSOCIATION ) which was later absorbed into the COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDONESIA . The original SAREKAT ISLAM was later turned into a political party known as the INDONESIAN ISLAMIC UNION PARTY (PSII) which in 1973 fused into the UNITED DEVELOPMENT PARTY (PPP) as such .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ………………

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART -73

INDONESIA ( SERIES -6 )

THE AFTERMATH OF THE FALL OF NETHERLANDS & VOC

After the fall of the NETHERLANDS to the FRENCH Empire and the dissolution of the DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY ( VOC ) following bankruptcy in 1800 , numerous changes could be seen in the EUROPEAN colonial powers regarding the affairs and administration of the EAST INDIES . The EAST INDIES were now treated as a proxy FRENCH colony . However , administered through DUTCH intermediary . The COMPANY’S assets in the EAST INDIES were nationalized . In 1806 NEPOLEONIC Wars shook the entire EUROPE . On 5th June 1806 , the BATAVIAN REPUBLIC was dissolved with the accession of a king called LOUIS BONAPARTE ( NEPOLEON’S THIRD BROTHER ALSO CALLED LODEWIJK NEPOLEON ) to the throne of NETHERLANDS . The REPUBLIC OF SEVEN UNITED NETHERLANDS was constituted on 19th July 1795 and from October 1801 onward it was called as BATAVIAN COMMONWEALTH/KINGDOM OF HOLLAND . LODEWIJK NEPOLEON appointed one of his Generals called HERMAN WILLEM DAENDELS as the Governor General of the EAST INDIES based in JAVA . DAENDELS was sent there mainly to strengthen the JAVANESE Defences against the expected BRITISH invasion as the BRITISH had been present in BENCOOLEN on the western coast of SUMATRA since 1685 and on many posts north of MALACCAN straits . However , during his period many construction works were done . The GREAT POST ROAD from ANJER to PANAROECAN across JAVA was constructed during his period . The thousand-kilometer road was meant to smoothen the movement of logistics across JAVA . It was completed in only one year . Thousands of JAVANESE workers and forced labours sacrificed their lives in this great endeavor . Apart from that , numbers of ancient monuments including BOROBADUR BUDDHIST TEMPLE OF CENTRAL JAVA were rediscovered and excavated . A systematic catalogue of all that were prepared for the first time . SIR THOMAS STAMFORD BINGLEY RAFFLES , who was a BRITISH statesman and served as the Leutinent Governor of the DUTCH EAST INDIES from 1811 to 1816 and Leutinent Governor of BENCOOLEN from 1818 to 1824 , published a book on HISTORY OF JAVA in 1817 . After the end of the NEPOLEONIC WARS , the Islands of JAVA was returned to the NETHERLANDS in 1815 in view of the ANGLO-DUTCH TREATY of 1814 .

After the brief BRITISH Rule under THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES , the DUTCH state took over the possession of VOC in 1816 . In the JAVA war from 1825 to 1830 between the colonial DUTCH Empire and JAVANESE rebels , the JAVANESE uprising was crushed . The war started as a rebellion . It was led by Prince DIPONEGORO , a leading member of the JAVANESE aristocracy . Despite the fact that in the past he had cooperated with the DUTCH . The war ended in 1830 with DUTCH victory . DIPONEGORO was invited to a peace conference but he was captured . Now DUTCH colonial authorities started implementing major reforms throughout the DUTCH EAST INDIES so that peace could be established there ensuring the colonies remained profitable . So after 1830 , a system of forced cultivation and indentured labour were introduced in JAVA ; so that over all productivity of the country could be raised . This system brought about enormous wealth for the DUTCH and their INDONESIAN allies . The new cultivation system forced the peasants to work in the government-owned plantations for sixty days in a year apart from working in their own lands . However , the system was abolished in 1870 . But again in 1901 , the DUTCH adopted a policy called ETHNIC POLICY. The DUTCH Queen WILHELMINA announced that the NETHERLANDS accepted an Ethical responsibility for the welfare of their colonial subjects . It was in the sharp contrast of the former official doctrine of WINGEWEST . Under this policy, INDONESIA was considered as a region for making profit . In this present (ETHNIC POLICY ) civilizing mission , the purpose of the DUTCH authorities there was to spread their own culture to the colonized people as such .

Now upgrading of roads and ports was under high priority of the DUTCH in INDONESIA . All these were needed for modernizing the economy through trade and commerce and they were helpful in fast movements of military as such . By 1950 , a road network of 12,000 KM of asphalt surface , 41,000 KM of metalled road areas and 16,000 KM of gravel surfaces were either built or upgraded . Apart from that DUTCH built 75,00 KM of railways , many bridges and irrigation systems covering more than 1.4 million hectares of rice fields . Several harbours were also constructed . Moreover , 140 public drinking water systems were developed . These infrastructural developments later became the base of independent INDONESIA . However, DUTCH police and military actions in many parts of INDONESIA remained quite cruel . Similarly , in the social fields , the DUTCH formed a privileged upper social class of soldiers , administrators , teachers , and pioneers . Though they lived together with the natives , yet at the top remained a rigid social and racial caste system . Virtually , the DUTCH EAST INDIES had two legal class of citizens : 1. EUROPEANS ; and 2. INDIGENOUS . However , a third class called FOREIGN EASTERNERS was added only in 1920 as such .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED …………….

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-72

INDONESIA ( SERIES -5 )

INDONESIA DURING COLONIAL PERIOD

EUROPEANS by 16th century started settling down in the EAST INDIES . The PORTUGUESE , SPANISH , DUTCH and ENGLISH MEN dominated the spice trade at its sources like KERALA in INDIA and MALUKU in INDONESIA . MALUKU or MOLUCCAS was also called ‘SPICE ISLAND’. Previously the ASIAN MUSLIMS specially ARABS used to carry on their spice trades to EUROPE through their VENETIAN outlets in the MEDITERRANEAN . Due to such monopoly of spice trades by the ARABS/ ASIAN MUSLIMS ( OTTOMAN TURKS ) the price of spices in EUROPE was quite high . As we know that before 16th century the EUROPE was not much advanced or dynamic market as such . And the EUROPEANS were busy in their renaissance and reforms after long years of CRUSADES and the continuous threat from the TENT EMPEROR CHENGIZ KHAN , a nomad king of MONGOLIA , who had shook up ASIA and EUROPE— both after becoming the GREAT KHAN/KAGAN in and around 1206 AD as such . And only major expansionist force of that time was ISLAM as OTTOMAN TURKS had conquered CONSTANTINOPLE in 1453 AD , while ISLAM had started spreading in INDONESIA and the entire EAST INDIES .

THE PORTUGUESE COLONIALISM IN INDONESIA

The PORTUGUESE were the first EUROPEANS who arrived in INDONESIA . NUTMEG , once one of the world’s most valuable commodities , drew one of the first EUROPEAN colonial powers to INDONESIA . The NUTMEG plant was native to INDONESIA’S BANDA Island . After conquering MALACCA in 1512 AD , the PORTUGUESE turned towards INDONESIA with only purposes : 1. TO DOMINAT THE SOURCES OF VALUABLE SPICES ; and 2. TO EXTEND THE CATHOLIC CHURCH MISSIONARY EFFORTS . Alliance with local Rulers and with military powers , the PORTUGUESE conquered MALUKU and established trading posts on the Islands of TERNATE , AMBON and SOLOR as such . However , the PORTUGUESE presence in INDONESIA was reduced to SOLOR , FLORES and TIMOR ( PRESENT DAY NUSA TENGGARA ) following their defeat at the hands of the indigenous TERNATEANS and the DUTCH in MALUKU . So , simple contributions of PORTUGUESE in the development of INDONESIAN history and culture were quite small and limited to : 1. THE ROMANTIC KERONKONG GUITAR BALLADS ; 2. A NUMBER OF INDONESIAN WORDS WHICH REFLECTED PORTUGUESE ROLE AS LINGUA FRANCA ; and 3. MANY FAMILY NAMES IN EASTERN INDONESIA such as da Costa , Dias , de Fretes , Gonsalves , etc . Thus , the PORTUGUESE impacts on INDONESIA were of two folds only : 1. the disruption and disorganization of the trade network in the region and 2. the first planting of CHRISTIANITY in INDONESIA .

THE DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY (VOC) IN INDONESIA

After the DUTCH parliament awarded the DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY (VOC) the monopoly of trade and colonial activities in the EAST INDIES region in 1602 AD , the VOC conquered the west JAVAN city of JAYAKARTA in 1619 AD . They founded the city of BATAVIA , presently known as JAKARTA , and made it its capital for operation of trade of spices as such . Apart from that , they started interfering in the internal politics of JAVA of that period . Simultaneously , they waged numerous wars with the leaders of MATARAM and BANTEN . They followed the PORTUGUESE’S inspirations , courage and strategies with better organization , superior financial backing , sofisticated weapons and grand ships . Despite that , though they failed to monopolize the spice trades of INDONESIA , yet they were much more successful than their predecessor like PORTUGUESE . They first exploited the factionalism of the small kingdom of JAVA . Then they established a permanent foothold in JAVA . And from there only grew a land-based colonial empire which once became the world’s richest colonial possession as such . In 1641 AD , the DUTCH captured MALACCA from PORTUGUESE and thus weakened the power of PORTUGUESE in ASIA . They also conquered SULAWESI city of MAKASSAR in 1667 AD , thus bringing its trades under their own control . By expelling PORTUGUESE in 1660 AD , they captured SUMATRAN’S various ports and kept them under their own control . To establish monopoly on spice trades , the DUTCH helped the son of the Ruler of BANTEN in overthrowing his father in 1680 AD . Simultaneously , they also drove away the BRITISH from there . And thus , the DUTCH established themselves firmly in the INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO by the 18th century . The VOC established their bases in some ports of JAVA , MALUKU , SULAWESI and the MALYAN PENINSULA also .

The Yogini – A Bride in need https://amzn.eu/d/4cnL7vC

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ………….

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-71

INDONESIA ( SERIES -4 )

THE AGE OF ISLAMIC STATES IN INDONESIA

During the MAJAPAHIT regime itself MUSLIM traders had started coming to INDONESIA . And with this the process of proselytizing the local inhabitants began . When it reached at peak in the 14th century, MAJAPAHIT power began to decline ranging from 1478 AD to 1520 AD . It was because of the fact that the MAJAPAHIT regime was unable to control the rising power of the SULTANATE of MALACCA . A large number of people , priests , artisans , courtiers and many members of the royal family moved east to the Island of BALI at the end of the MAJAPAHIT regime . As per the accounts of the ABBASID CALIPHATE ( THE THIRD CALIPHATE TO SUCCEED THE ISLAMIC PROPHET MUHAMMAD , RULED FROM BAGHDAD ) , many MUSLIM sailors traveled to the INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO due to its precious spice trade commodities like cloves , nutmeg , galangal etc. The spread of ISLAM dated back to the thirteenth century onwards in the Island of SUMATRA . However , its process was complicated and slow . The spread of ISLAM could be attributed to the increasing trade links outside the ARCHIPELAGO . In fact , trades and royalty of the major Kingdoms were the first to adopt the new religion called ISLAM . In the most of the parts of JAVA and SUMATRA , ISLAM spread by the end of 16th century . However , ISLAM in INDONESIA overlaid and mixed with the existing culture and the religious influences as such . And it shaped the predominant form of ISLAM in JAVA , INDONESIA . The HINDU majority concentrated in BALI only .

We have learnt something/little about the SULTANATE OF MATARAM in our earlier blog . Now a fresh look at this SULTANATE will give us a new light as such . Virtually , the SULTANATE OF MATARAM was the third SULTANATE in JAVA after the SULTANATE OF DEMAK BINTORO and the SULTANATE OF PAJANG . The SULTANATE OF MATARAM was the last major independent JAVANESE kingdom of JAVA before coming to DUTCH . It’s first monarch was SENOPATI who ruled from 1586 AD to 1601 AD . During the reign of SULTAN AGUNG ANYOKROKUSUMO , who ruled from 1613 AD to 1645 AD , the MATARAM SULTANATE expanded to the maximum extent . And began to decline after his death in 1645 . PAKUBUWONO II was the last ruler who ruled from 1743 AD to 1749 AD before MATARAM fell in the hands of DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY ( VOC ) in 1749 AD . The main sources of the history of MATARAM SULTANATE were local JAVANESE historical accounts called BABAD and the accounts of the DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY . Defects with the local JAVANESE BABAD were that they were generally undated , obscure , mythological and full of fantastic elements ; for they were used as tools to legitimize the authority of the Ruler.

The SULTANATE OF BANTEN was a BANTENESE ISLAMIC TRADING COMPANY founded in the 16th century in BANTEN . BANTEN is a port city on the northwest coast of JAVA . It was said to have been founded by SUNAN GUNUNGJATI who had previously founded CIREBON . Its capital was OLD BANTENESE and SERANG . And its languages were BANTENESE apart from other languages like CIREBONESE , SUNDANESE , CIKONENG LAMPUNG and BANYUMAS JAVANESE . And the main SULTANS who ruled the kingdom were as follows : 1. SULTAN MAULANA HASANUDDIN , WHO RULED FROM 1552 AD TO 157O AD ; 2. SULTAN AGENG TIRTAYASA , WHO RULED FROM 1651 AD TO 1683 AD ; 3. SULTAN MAULANA MUHAMMAD SHAFIUDDIN , WHO RULED FROM 1809 AD TO 1813 AD ; and 4. SULTAN SYARIF MUHAMMAD ASH-SHAFIUDDIN . It was once a big trading center of pepper in the South-East ASIA . The glory of the kingdom reached its zenith from late 16th century to mid-17th century . In the late 17th century , its importance was overshadowed by BATAVIA , the MALAYAN city and the capital of the DUTCH EAST INDIES . And it was finally annexed by the DUTCH EAST INDIES in 1913 . Its core area , now , forms the INDONESIAN city of BANTEN with the GREAT MOSQUE OF BANTEN , a place of attraction for the people of the country and outside of it .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED …………….

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-70

INDONESIA ( SERIES -3 )

MAJAPAHIT AND SINGHASARI KINGDOM

In the PRE-ISLAMIC history of INDONESIA , two important regimes are required to be studied . The HINDU MAJAPAHIT Kingdom was founded in the Eastern JAVA at the end of the 13th century . The history of MAJAPAHIT Empire was written in several records including PARARATON (IT IS A JAPANESE HISTORICAL CHRONICAL WRITTEN IN KAWI , OLD JAVANESE LANGUAGE) and NEGARAKERTAGAMA ( IT IS AN OLD JAVANESE EULOGY TO HAYAM WURUK , A JAVANESE KING OF THE MAJAPAHIT EMPIRE ) . Under the leadership of GAJAH MADA , MAJAPAHIT Empire reached the peak of prosperity and affluency . GAJAH MADA was a powerful military leader . It was considered as the Golden Period of INDONESIAN history . From 1293 AD to around 1500 AD , its influence extended to most of the MALAYA PENINSULA , SUMATRA , BALI and BORNEO as such . The founder of the MAJAPAHIT Empire , KERTARAJASA , was the son-in-law of the Ruler of SINGHASARI kingdom of JAVA . KERTARAJASA was a JAPANESE Emperor from 1293 AD to 1309 AD . When in 1290 AD , SINGHSARI drove SRIVIJAYA out of JAVA , the rising power of SINGHASARI attracted the attention of KUBLAI KHAN , the then Emperor of CHINA as he sent missionaries demanding tribute . But KERTANEGARA , the last and most important King of the SINGHASARI kingdom of JAVA from 1268 AD to 1292 AD ( till his death ) , refused to pay tribute to KUBLAI KHAN . As a result , KUBLAI KHAN sent military off the coast of JAVA in 1293 AD as a punitive expedition against SINGHASARI kingdom . By that time KERTANEGARA was killed by a rebel from KEDIRI Kingdom , a HINDU-BUDDHIST Kingdom located in the East JAVA . The MAJAPAHIT allied with the MANGOLS against JAYAKATWANG of KEDIRI Kingdom . And once the SINGHASARI kingdom was destroyed , MAJAPAHIT turned towards its allies MANGOLS and compelled them to withdraw from there as confusion percolated deep among the MANGOLS as such . So the MANGOLS preferred to retreat .

GAJAH MADA , an ambitious Regent of MAJAPAHIT from 1331 AD to 1364 AD , conquered and extended the rule to the surrounding island . According to the old JAVANESE Manuscripts , poems and mythology , GAJAH MADA was a military leader and an ambitious MAJAPAHIT Prime Minister/Regent of the JAVANESE Empire of MAJAPAHIT during the fourteenth century . He had taken an oath , called SUMPAH PALAPA , according to which he vowed to live an ascetic lifestyle by not consuming food containing spices until he had conquered all of the South-East ASIAN archipelago NUSANTARA ( THE INDONESIAN NAME OF MARITIME SOUTH-EAST ASIA ) for MAJAPAHIT . During his reign , the HINDU Epics like RAMAYANA and MAHABHARATAS became ingrained in the JAVANESE culture . And the world viewed that through WAYANG KULIT, a traditional form of puppet-shadow play originally found in the cultures of JAVA and BALI in INDONESIA . GAJAH MADA is still considered as an important national hero in modern INDONESIA . He was the real unifire of the INDONESIAN archipelago .

The word GAJAH literary means Elephant . In the HINDU mythology , it is believed to be a VAHANA ( ANIMAL MOUNT ) of the God INDRA . At the same time , the Elephant is also associated with LORD GANESHA— the elephant-headed God with a human body— the son of LORD SHIVA and GODESS PARVATI . Similarly , the word MADA ( A JAVANESE WORD ) appears to be derived from SANSKRIT which means drunk . The concept is when the Elephant is drunk , he will walk arbitrarily , violently , overcoming all obstacles coming on the way . If we apply all these meaning with GAJAH MADA , the name could be interpreted in two ways : ‘ 1. HE CONSIDERED HIMSELF TO BE THE VEHICLE OF THE KING , THE EXECUTOR OF THE KING’S ORDERS , JUST AS THE ELEPHANT AIRAVATA BECAME THE VAHANA OF THE GOD INDRA ‘ ; and 2. HE IS A PERSON WHO SEEMS DRUNK AND VIOLENT WHEN FACED WITH VARIOUS OBSTACLES THAT WILL HINDER THE PROGRESS OF THE KINDOM .’ Similarly , in the GAJAH MADA Inscription , his other nickname is RAKRYAN MAPATIH JIRNODHARA . JIRNODHARA literally means ‘ builder of something new .’ It also means ‘ restorer of something which has fallen apart .’ Thus , in a fugatative sense , he could be seen as a restorer and successor to KERTANEGARA’S idea in the DWIPANTARA MANDALA ( UNITED SOUTH-EAST ASIAN ARCHIPELAGO DEVELOPED IN 1275 ) concept . Much of the modern popular depiction of GAJAH MADA has been derived from the immigration of MOHAMMAD YAMIN who wrote a book called GAJAH MADA : PAHLAWAN PERSATUAN NUSANTARA in 1945 . MOHAMMAD YAMIN was an INDONESIAN poet , politician and national hero who played a crucial role in writing a draft preamble to the 1945 constitution of INDONESIA .

THE YOGINI : A BRIDE IN NEED https://amzn.eu/d/4cnL7vC

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ……………….

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-69

THE HINDU-BUDDHIST CIVILIZATIONS OF INDONESIA ( INDONESIA SERIES-2 )

Like most of the southeast ASIAN Countries , INDONESIA was also influenced by the INDIAN culture . Since second century AD onwards and upto twelfth century AD , the INDIAN Dynasties like PALLAVA , GUPTA , PALA and CHOLA , spread the INDIAN culture throughout South-East ASIAN countries including INDONESIA . Though references to the YAWADVIPA , a HINDU Kingdom had appeared in the SANSKRIT Literatures since 200 BC as such . As the references can be found in the ancient INDIAN Epic RAMAYANA that how SUGRIVA , RAMA’S chief of the army , sent his men to YAWADVIPA in search of SITA , the wife of RAMA . As per the TAMIL text like MANIMEKALAI , NAGAPURAM was the capital of the JAVA Kingdom . On the peak of the MOUNT RAKSA in the PANAITAN Island , a statue of LORD GANESHA has been found from the UJUNG KULON NATIONAL PARK in the west JAVA . It appears to be that of the 1st century AD . We also have Archeological evidences of SUNDA Kingdom in the west JAVA of second century AD . The JIWA temple of BATUJAYA , KARAWANG , west JAVA also appears to be of that period only . The south INDIAN culture was spread over there in JAVA by the PALLAVA Dynasty between 4th and 5th century AD . The stone Inscriptions written in the PALLAVA scripts found in JAVA and BORNEO of the 5th century AD ascertained this fact . The CHINESE traveler FA-HIEN with about 200 fishermen reached JAVA in the beginning of the 5th century and he had written in his Accounts that all the inhabitants of JAVA that time were HINDUS . All the fishermen who accompanied him from the GANGES to SIHAL ( NOW SRI LANKA ) and from SINAL to JAVA and from there to CHINA— were HINDUS . It is also said that in the 75 AD , from KALINGA ( NOW ORISSA ) a group of fishermen , through the way of BENGAL , reached JAVA and established INDIAN colonies there . They civilized the local people . They made them cultured and thus , the 75th AD was considered as the date of their coming to the Island as well as the beginning of the first year of the JAVA calander . Though the language of JAVA was MALAYA , yet SANSKRIT was the language of religious , political and historical Books and Manuscripts of JAVA as such .

A HINDU KUTAI MARTADIPURA KINGDOM

The first and the oldest HINDU Kingdom that existed in INDONESIA was the KUTAI MARTADIPURA KINGDOM in the East KALIMANTAN on the Island of BORNEO , INDONESIA . The native ethnic group called as URANG KUTAI , having population of around 300,000 people , have their own language called the KUTAINESE language which accompanied with their own rich history . KUTAI is the historical region where , at least , two Kingdoms ruled : 1. KUTAI MARTADIPURA KINGDOM FROM 399 AD TO 1635 AD , A HINDU KINGDOM ; and 2. KUTAI KARTANEGARA SULTANATE FROM 1300 ONWARD , A MUSLIM KINGDOM . The seven stone pillars or YUPA have been found in KUTAI , KAMAN Estuary , near the MAHAKAM River. The YUPA Inscriptions described about three Rulers : 1. THE FIRST RULER WAS KUDUNGGA , ‘ THE LORD OF MEN ‘ (NARENDRA) ; 2. HIS SON ASWAWARMAN , ‘ VANSA KARTR ‘, ( THE FOUNDER OF THE DYNASTY ) ; and 3. MULAVARMAN ‘LORD OF KINGS ‘ (RAJENDRA) ,THE SON OF LATTER AND THE GRANDSON OF THE FORMER . As about the origin of KUDUNGGA , the historians are not unanimous as such . Some of them are of the opinion that they presumably were the descendants from the royalties of the MAGADHA EMPIRE of INDIA . While others argue that the name is similar to BUGIS name of KUDUNGGA . However , his son and the grandson adopted the HINDUISTIC belief as such . During the reign of King MULAVARMAN , the YUPA INSCRIPTIONS were made . It is believed to be made by BRAHMINS who received alms from King MULAVARMAN . RAJA MULAVARMAN was said to have conquered his neighbors in battle . He is also stated to have increased/expanded the Lands of KUTAI by a VEDIC RITUAL called ASVAREDJWA . This ritual in INDIA was called ASVAMEDH YAGNA which was performed by the Kings in the ancient INDIA . For this ritual a horse was released for free roaming uninterrupted as long as he could . And the entire land , till where the horse roamed , was declared as the land of the King . MULAVARMAN was also known for his tribute of gold to his God . It is also not clear why the YUPA INSCRIPTIONS were made during his period , because the name of his kingdom was not mentioned on the Inscriptions nor in any other documents as such . It is also not clear why these Inscriptions were erected and with what purpose . But it is clear that the LESONG BATU , a megalith stone , located in the MUARA KAMAN district is believed to be the remnants used to make the ancient YUPA INSCRIPTIONS in the 4th century AD .

THE KUTAI KARTANEGARA SULTANATE

The KUTAI KARTANEGARA SULTANATE was established in the end of 13th century AD . It was located in the region of TEPIAN BATU which was also called KUTAI LAMA . The first known ruler of the SULTANATE was AJI BATARA AGUNG DEWA SAKTI who was supposed to have ruled from 1300 AD to 1325 AD . AJI PANGERAN SINUM PANJI MENDAPA , who ruled from 1635 AD to 1650 AD , conquered the kingdom of KUTAI MARTADIPURA and merged the two realms . Thus , the name of the new kingdom was KUTAI KARTANEGARA ING MARTADIPURA . In 1667 , the DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY ( VOC ) attacked MAKASSAR on the Island of SULAWESI which led to the downfall of BUGIS kingdom of GOWA . As a result , some of the BUGIS under the leadership of LAMOHANG DAENG MANGKONA immigrated to KUTAI and the Ruler of KUTAI allowed them to settle in KAMPUNG MELANTAI around the KARANG MUMUS RIVER . And this settlement grew and developed as the modern town of what is called SAMARINDA . Since 17th century , almost all BUGIS adopted ISLAM . AJI MUHAMMAD IDRIS , who ruled the region from 1732 AD to 1739 AD , was the first ruler to have an ISLAMIC name as such . AJI MUHAMMAD MUSLIHUDDIN in 1782 moved his capital from PEMARANGAN to TEPIAN PANDAN , the present day city of TENGGARONG . But in1844 AD , the DUTCH defeated the SULTAN AJI MUHAMMAD SALEHUDIN and forced him to exile after taking direct control of KUTAI . In 1942 , the JAPANESE invaded the region and acknowledged a KOOTI KINGDOM which was the subject of TENNO . In the JAPANESE language the Emperor is called TENNO . In 1945 AD , KUTAI with its neighbors joined the EAST KALIMANTAN FEDERATION and finally became the part of the REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ……………….

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-68

THE HISTORY OF INDONESIA AT A GLANCE ( INDONESIA SERIES-1 )

INDONESIA is an archipelagic country having more than 18000 islands located along the equator in South-East ASIA . Historians are of the opinion that INDONESIA was linked with the ASIAN mainland during PLEISTOCENE ( ABOUT FOUR MILLION BC ) period of history . This was the period when the first HOMINIDS appeared in this archipelago . Today they are called JAVA MAN who had inhabited INDONESIA about two million to five lakhs years ago , was first discovered by the DUTCH anatomist EUGENE DUBOIS at TRINIL in 1891 . Other HOMO ERECTUS Fossiles of a similar age were found at SANGIRAN in the 1930s by the anthropologist like GUSTAV HEINRICH RALPH VON KOENIGSWALD . AUSTRONESIAN people , who constituted the majority of the modern population of INDONESIA , were supposed to have originally came from TAIWAN around 2000 BC ago . From the seventh century AD onwards , the SRIVIJAYA naval kingdom flourished , thus began the HINDU and BUDDHIST influences in INDONESIA . SRIVIJAYA was a BUDDHIST THALASSOCRATIC Empire based on the island of SUMATRA which ultimately influenced much of South-East ASIA . SRIVIJAYA was an important centre of the expansion of BUDDHISM from the 7th to 12 century AD . SRIVIJAYA was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of the INDONESIA and MALYA archipelago .

THE AGRICULTURIST SHAILENDRA DYNASTY — IN BRIEF

The SHAILENDRA DYNASTY was an INDIANISED DYNASTY that emerged in JAVA in the 8th century AD . The word SHAILENDRA was derived from two SANSKRIT words : 1. SAILA ; and 2. INDRA . SAILA means mountain and INDRA means King . Thus , etymologically speaking SHAILENDRA means ‘ KING OF THE MOUNTAIN ‘. Their reign signified a cultural renaissance in the entire region . The SHAILENDRAS were promoters of MAHAYANA BUDDHISM with inherent elements of HINDUISM . They covered the KEDU PLAIN and CENTRAL JAVA with BUDDHIST Monuments . The colossal STUPA of BOROBADUR was one of them . It has now been designated as the UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE as such . Though considered as THALASSOCRATIC reign , yet they relied on the agricultural pursuits . They developed KEDU PLAIN of CENTRAL JAVA as an area of intensive rice cultivation . The Dynasty appeared to be the ruling family of both : 1. MATARAM KINGDOM of CENTRAL JAVA ; and 2. SRIVIJAYA KINGDOM of SUMATRA .

The MATARAM KINGDOM of CENTRAL JAVA flourished as a JAPANESE HINDU- BUDDHIST Kingdom between 8th to 11th century . It was established by King SANJAY. It expanded from CENTRAL JAVA to EAST JAVA . The kingdom was also ruled by the SHAILENDRA DYNASTY and the ISHANA DYNASTY . Its capitals at various times were MAMRATIPUR , POH PITU , TAMWLANG and WATUGALUH respectively . The common languages of the kingdom were OLD JAVANESE and SANSKRIT . It spread from 716 AD to 1016 AD . And religions that were followed by the people during the period were : 1. HINDUISM ; 2. BUDDHISM ; and 3. ANIMISM as such . The kingdom was seemed to have relied heavily on agriculture . Extensive rice farming was the profession of most of the people of the Kingdom . Later they were benefited by maritime trade also . The kingdom was prosperous and populated . It had a well developed culture and refined civilization as such . Between the late eighth century and the mid-9th century , the Kingdom saw rapid growth of temple construction . The most important temples constructed during the period in MATARAM were KALASAN , SEWU , BOROBADUR and PRAMBANAN . All these temples were quite closer to the modern day city of YOGYAKARTA . All these temples reflected the the blossoming of JAVANESE art and architecture . The Kingdom had become a dominant empire not only in JAVA , but also in BALI , SUMATRA , SOUTHERN THAILAND , THE INDIANISED KINGDOM OF PHILIPPINES and KHMER in CAMBODIA . Later the Dynasty was divided into two Kingdoms . The one became BUDDHIST and other SHIVAIST Dynasty . The BUDDHIST Dynasty of SRIVIJAYA Kingdom in SUMATRA was led by BALAPUTRADEWA . The SHIVAIST Dynasty of MATARAM Kingdom of JAVA was led by RAKAI PIKATAN .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ………………….

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-67

INDO-THAI CULTURAL UNITY

BRAHMINICAL CULTURE IN THAILAND The BRAHMINICAL CULTURE/RELIGION came to THAILAND at quite early stage of its history . Historians are unanimous on this that the oldest religion of SIAM was the BRAHMINICAL religion . Simultaneously , Historians are of the opinion that both – the BRAHMINICAL RELIGION and BUDDHISM came to THAILAND from CAMBODIA as that time THAILAND was the part of CAMBODIA before 13th century AD . Some inscriptions/petrograph with portraits including two portraits of LORD GANESHA have been found in BANGKOK . In one inscription description has been found how to establish SHIVA LINGA . Statues of LORD GANESHA , LORD VISHNU , GODDESS LAKSHMI and LORD SHIVA made up of bronze have been found which proves the presence of the INDIAN BRAHMINICAL CULTURE in THAILAND . In one of the statues out of four hands of LORD VISHNU in upper one hand CONCH and in other CHAKRA (WHEEL) have been found which appears to be made by some INDIAN sculptures as such . Similarly , in one of the statues , LORD SHIVA was shown doing TANDAV NRITYA which appears to be Similar to one statue of NATRAJA SHIVA found in SOUTH INDIA . In LOPURI , one very ancient temple has been found about which many historians are of the opinion that it was built on the basis of the HINDU arts and it appears to be similar to that of the HINDU temples found in the far-east of CAMBODIA . Three sleeping rooms have been found in this temple which appears to be built for sleeping purposes of LORD BRAHMA , LORD VISHNU and LORD SHIVA .* BRAHMINS in SIAM were honored like BUDDHIST MONKS in the King’s Palace and when new King was going to be crowned on the throne of SIAM , all these BRAHMIN PRIEST were invited for chanting VEDIC MANTRAS on this occasion . Near to the BATVOT-FRAM temple , there existed a village of BRAHMIN families who were locally called FRAMS . And there existed three temples of bricks in which still there exists a statue of TRIMURTI ( THREE STATUES OF — BRAHMA , VISHNU AND MAHESH ) called in THAILAND , FRAMHA RAKSHESHWAERVIDHI . Like an ancient INDIAN King , the King of THAILAND used to celebrate a festival called REKNA in his palatial garden . During this occasion , the King used to plough the field as we see in the ancient INDIA , RAJA JANAK of VIDEHA used to plough the land once In a year or so . We can also get such story in the BUDDHIST book called NITANT KATHA where the SHAKA King SUDYODHAN used to plough the field once in a year . Moreover that , in SIAM like in INDIA tonsure ceremony of children are still celebrated . INDO-SIAMESE cultural unity could , thus , be seen from this fact that in a HINDU temple of BANGKOK , the entire story of the RAMAYANA is ingraved .

BUDDHISM IN SIAM/THAILAND

As we know that before 14th century , SIAM was the part of CAMBODIA and the King of CAMBODIA was a staunch SHAIV ( WORSHIPER OF LORD SHIVA ) . In 1356 AD , a SURYAVANSHI KING RAMA freed SIAM from CAMBODIA . He called a BUDDHIST MONK called MAHASWAMI SANGHRAJ from SRI LANKA to propagate BUDDHISM in SAIM . Again in year 1358 AD he planted a branch of pious PIPAL tree brought from SRI LANKA . And later a BUDDHIST MONASTERY was built where that PIPAL tree was planted by the King . One can see what is inscribed on the SHIGH DWAR ( LION’S GATE ) of BOROBADUR temple of JAVA and VARHUT temple of INDIA are written on the BOUDH VIHARA of SIAM almost everywhere . The number of BOUDH VIHARA in SIAM is more than twenty thousand in which more than a 100,000 BUDDHIST MONKS used to stay . As per popular belief , under the pedestal of some of the BUDDHIST Statues present in those BOUDH VIHARA , there existed so many precious metals as such . MOST OF THE BUDDHIST MONKS are from HINYANA SECT and they used to wear saffron color cloths like the INDIAN BUDDHIST MONKS . Their heads are tonsured . BUDDHIST MONKS never do marriage . They are free from worldly lures/temptations . They use to beg every morning for their livelihood . They never take narcotics substance or liquor . And the THAI Government provides government helps to every BUDDHIST MONASTERY OF THAILAND as the Ruler of SIAM is considered as the First and the Supreme head of BOUDH RELIGION . He is protector of the religion . The King never interfares into the affairs of any BUDDHIST MONASTERY as such but he uses to appoint a manager called SANGHKARTA for BUDDHIST MONASTERIES who uses to solve the religious disputes on the advice of the King . The people of SIAM considers his king as the form of the God on the Earth . Many INDIAN traditions had been followed in SIAM/THAILAND since ancient times . We can find the influences of laws made by MANU and KAUTILYA — both were ancient INDIAN law givers , on SIAMESE culture . As MANU has divided crimes into eighteen parts , in the SIAM’S schedule of crimes of nineteen , MANU’S list of crimes were also included . Like MANU , who had discussed about seven types of slaves in his book MANUSMRITI , SIAM also had devided slaves into seven categories . As per KAUTILYA’S political philosophy , during medieval period , the King used to abdicate the throne at old age for his elder son and he used to live the rest of his life peacefully . In SIAM similar traditions also existed . Like INDIAN ancient philosophy that the interests on debt should not be more than principal , are still followed in SIAM . And on the coins of SIAM , the images of GAJSHINGH RAJ and DEMON are ingraved .

LITERATURES OF SIAM & INDIA

In the Literatures of SIAM importance of Epics like RAMAYANA and MAHABHARATAS are considered as high as in INDIA . It is said that those early inhabitants from INDIA had brought with them both the Epics . But with some changes in the story , these Epics are considered still today as very pious . On the basis of the story of RAMAYANA , there is other book in THAILAND called FANAN SUN NANG in which we can find descriptions of the lessons given by BALI to SUGRIV . On the other hand , there exists a drama called UNNARAT based on the INDIAN Epic called MAHABHARATAS . In this book , there is a description about ANRUDHA , the grandson of LORD SRI KRISHNA , have been made in a vivid language . Apart from these HINDU Epics , we can find numerous books on BUDDHISM as such . In one such book called PRATHOG , description about the emergence of the universe has been given which appears to be similar to that of the INDIAN thought related to the emergence of universe . In this book one can get description about MANU , the writer of book called MANUSMRITI . Here name of MANU has been written as THOUM MANU . One can get description of BHAVANI/VAVANI in a book called POKHVADI . And in the SOMAN KHODOM book LORD BUDDHA’S life history has been written in a very interesting way . In FRAFROTISAT , there is description about the past life of LORD BUDDHA . We can find that the PALI language has been more propagated than the SANSKRIT language as such in SIAM. As we know that King RAMA-VII has translated the BUDDHIST literature called TRIPITHAK from PALI language to THAI language . JIN KAL NALINI and KAM DEVI VANSH are some of the books written in the THAI language which give detail description about the history of BOUDH RELIGION . In the book called NOK KHRUM , about the origin of the First Man in this universe (ADIPURUSH) , it is written that the First Man had come out of the egg of goose/swan . Here in INDIA , We have a GOLDEN WOMB (HIRANYAGARVA) theory of the origin of the universe . Thus , we can see the impact of INDIAN culture and civilization on SIAM in numerous ways .

*CITED IN JOURNAL OF SIAM SOCIETY , V (1908) III. PP-20-21.

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

OUR NEXT BLOG WOULD BE ON THE HISTORY OF INDONESIA .

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-66

POLITICAL CRISIS OF THAILAND 2012-14

After about two years of YINGLUCK SHINAWATRA ( THE FIRST LADY PRIME MINISTER OF THAILAND ) regime , Protesters started movement against her government . A broad alliance of Protesters under the leadership of SUTHEP THAUGSUBAN , the former Deputy Leader of the opposition party , demanded an end of the THAKSIN regime ( AS PM YINGLUCK SHINAWATRA WAS THAKSIN SHINAWATRA’S DAUGHTER ) in the later part of 2013 . During YINGLUCK regime , a blanket amnesty had been given to the Protesters of 2010 . Apart from that all people involved in any type of political crimes including all convictions against TAKSIN SHINAWATRA , the former Prime Minister , had been included in the amnesty list , thus , they all were freed from the captivity . This action of the government triggered a discontent among the masses . As a result , as many as 400,000 people came on the road of BANKOCK against the YINGLUCK SHINAWATRA’S government . The Senate of THAILAND was urged to reject the bill regarding this to quell the reaction of the masses . But the attempt failed considerably . And the newly formed PEOPLE’S DEMOCRATIC REFORM COMMUNITEE ( PDRC ) along with other allies groups started putting pressure on the government to resgine . The opposition DEMOCRAT PARTY started mass resignation from the Parliament . The Protesters’ volume of demands ( reasonable and unreasonable— both ) increased many times . In place of YINGLUCK government , they demanded for the establishment of an indirectly elected ‘ People’s Council ‘ to govern the country . In response to such a massive protest by the people , YINGLUCK SHINAWATRA dissolved the parliament on 9th December 2013 and proposed a new election on 2nd February 2014 . But the PDRC’S demand was that YINGLUCK government should resigned within twenty four hours . On the other hand , YINGLUCK insisted that she should continue her duty till the end of scheduled election in the February 2014 . The Election Commission had started the process of the election in the country with the registration process for the Political Party’s candidates lists for 14th February Election of the country . YINGLUCK’S PHEU THAI PARTY in anticipation of upcoming election on 14th February 2014 , had prepared a list of 125 candidates to be presented to the Election Commission as such . But the Anti-government Protesters on 22nd December 2013 under the leadership of SUTHEP THAUGSUBAN and the newly formed party PDRC with approximately 270,000 Protesters marched towards the THAI-JAPANESE SPORTS STADIUM , the venue of the registration process for the upcoming election in THAILAND , and stopped the entire process of the election at initial stage as such . On the other hand , the Constitutional Court of THAILAND on dated 7th May 2014 , ruled that YINGLUCK SHINAWATRA would have to step down as the Prime Minister as she had abused her power by transferring a high level government official . And on 21st August , she was replaced by the army chief GENERAL PRAYUT CHAN-O-CHA . Thus , ended an other elected government in THAILAND .

THAI COUP D’ETAT OF 1914

The National Assembly of THAILAND made the army chief GENERAL PRAYUT CHAN-O-CHA as the Prime Minister on 21st August 2014 . Martial law was formally declared which ended on 1st April 2015 . After the Junta took control of the country , academics and political commentators try to propagate ideas of fascism to which PITHAYA POOKAMAN and JAMES TAYLOR called as NEW RIGHTS ‘. They were consisted of altraconservatives , reactionaries and former leftists . To JOHN DRAPER , an academician , fascism developed in THAILAND in 2014 . On the other hand , the ruling Junta , though promised to hold elections soon , yet before that they wanted to enact a new constitution for THAILAND . When the draft prepared by the ruling Junta was rejected by the government officials in 2015 . Then , a national referendum on the newly drafted constitution was held on 7th August 2016 in which out of 55% voting 61% people voted for the newly drafted constitution as such . And there was a provision in the new constitution that even an unelected person and other than a member of parliament could be appointed as the Prime Minister of THAILAND . This had given the way for the Military officials to be the Prime Minister of the country . Simultaneously , the new constitution also gave the NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR PEACE AND ORDER power and authority to make appointments of 250 members of Senate in the next government . Thus , indirectly almost all things now revolved around the Prime Minister of the country which even may be the military officials as such .

KING RAMA-X AND THAILAND

When the King BHUMIBOL ADULYADEJ (RAMA-IX) died on 13th October 2016 at the age of 89 in SIRIRAJ HOSPITAL in THAILAND , fifteenth day after his death , the then Regent PREM TINSULANONDA (a THAI military officer , a politician and a statesman who served as the country’s Prime Minister from 3rd March 1980 to 4th August 1988 , credited for ending the COMMUNIST insurgency and the accelerating economic growth , was Resent of THAILAND from 13th October 2016 to 1st December 2016 ) invited MAHA VAJIRALONGKORN to ascend to the throne of THAILAND as the 10th king of the CHAKRI Dynasty under the title of King RAMA-X . And King RAMA-X signed a new constitution in April 2017 so that democracy could again be brought in the country . In June 2019 , PRAYUT CHAN-O-CHA , a retired General and former military Junta leader , was elected the next Prime Minister of THAILAND by the both houses of the parliament . And thus , a civilian rule in THAILAND was ultimately restored with elected Prime Minister like Rt. General PRAYUT CHAN-O-CHA came to power .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ………………..