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THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-101

VIETNAM ( SERIES -19 )

EMPEROR LE LONG DINH OF DAI CO VIET

LE LONG DINH , also known as LE NGOA TRIEU , was the last king of the early LE DYNASTY of the Kingdom of DAI CO VIET . He ruled the Kingdom from 1005 AD to 1009 AD . After killing his brother LE LONG VIET, he took over the throne and named his era as CANH THUY . His mysterious death at the age of 24 led the fall of Early LE DYNASTY . Then all the power was seized by House of LY . LE LONG DINH was the fifth son of Emperor LE HOAN who was born on 15th November 986 AD . But his mother appeared to be a concubine whose name was DIEU NU . And thus , he was the half brother of the DUKE of NAM PHONG , LE LONG VIET . In 1005 AD , LE DAI HANH ( LE HOAN ) died at TRUONG XUAN PALACE . The Crown Prince LE LONG VIET contested for the Crown with the other three brothers— LE LONG TICH , LE LONG KINH and LE LONG DINH . All of them used forces and fought for eight months continuously . LE LONG VIET defeated LE LONG TICH in October 1005 AD . LE LONG TICH fled to CHAMPA where he was killed by the local people at CO LA Estuary . And LE LONG VIET proclaimed himself as Emperor of DAI CO VIET with title TRUNG TONG HOANG DE means the Emperor of TRUNG TONG . However , after reigning for three days , he was killed by the intruders deployed by LE LONG DINH . And nobody remained in the palace to take over the dead body of LE LONG VIET except the future Ruler LY CONG UAN who later on founded the LY DYNASTY in DAI CO VIET after the death of the Emperor LE LONG DINH in 1009 AD . In this way LE LONG DINH took over the throne in the winter of 1005 AD .

FOREIGN RELATION AND GETTING BUDDHIST SUTRAS AND OTHER CLASSICS

In 1007 AD , LE LONG DINH ordered his brother to give a White Pangolin as a gift to the SONG DYNASTY in exchange to get BUDDHIST SUTRA and other 9 CHINESE classics like : 1. I CHING ; 2. CLASSIC OF POETRY ; 3. BOOK OF DOCUMDNTS ; 4. BOOK OF RITES ; 5. SPRING ANNALS ; 6. AUTUMN ANNALS ; 7. CLASSIC OF FILIAL PIETY ; 8. ANALECTS ; and 9. MENCIUS . These were the nine classics of CHINESE CIVILIZATION . SONG Emperor approved the DAI VIET proposal and gave it to the VIETNAMESE Ambassador . All these books for the first time came to VIETNAM under the reign of LE LONG DINH . With high self-esteem and respect to the tributary activities of DAI CO VIET , SONG Emperor refused to invade DAI CO VIET despite the advice of the CHINESE MANDARINS to the SONG Emperor after the death of The Emperor LE HOAN in 1005 AD .

A TYRANT CALLED LE LONG DINH

As per the COMPLETE ANNALS OF DAI VIET , LE LONG DINH was one of the most brutal and sadistic Rulers of VIETNAM . That’s why his reign was called as the reign of terror and thus he was compared to the ROMAN Emperors like CALIGULA and COMMODUS so far as their traits of excess cruelty were concerned . LE LONG DINH excess of cruelties could be enumerated as follows : 1. He used to execute innocent people for entertaining purposes such as tying them with hay to burn to death ; 2. He used to call an executioner from SONG CHINA to gradually mutilate victims to death slowly by using blunt bladed swords and axes and the Emperor was said to have delighted in the deaths of his victims ; 3. The war prisoners were ordered to take them to the riverside to be cramed into cages along the river banks and when the high tides came in at dusk , the Emperor would watch them drown slowly ; 4. The Emperor sometimes stuck livestock such as pigs or cows to death for feasts as such ; 5. At court banquets he killed cats and served them to his guests and court officials and make them to eat the cats ; and 6. The Emperor , afterwards , would play around with their severed heads in front of the court audience for frightening them and reducing their chances of questioning his audacity . According to the historians in DAI VIET history , he had contacted hemorrhoids/piles , that’s why he often used to hold court while lying down . He held the throne of DAI CO VIET for four short years until he died in a mysterious circumstances in 1009 AD at the age of 24 . His son SA was still a child , so under the management of the court officials , LY CONG UAN became the Emperor of DAI CO VIET . Thus , the rule of LY DYNASTY started in the country .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ………………………

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THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-100

VIETNAM ( SERIES -18 )

EMPEROR LE HOAN OF DAI CO VIET

LE HOAN or LE DAI HANH was the third ruler of the DAI CO VIET Kingdom from 981 AD to 1005 AD . Under the reign of Emperor DINH BO LINH , he was the GENERALISSIMO of the DAI CO VIET army. GENERALISSIMO was the military rank officer of the highest degree . He used to be superior to the Field Marshal having five-star ranks in the state and he used to command a ten thousand strong men army of DAI CO VIET . After the death Emperor DINH BO LINH , LE HOAN became Regent of DINH’S successor six-year-old DINH TOAN in late 979 AD . Following rebellions in the Kingdom , LE HOAN deposed the boy King DINH TOAN , married his mother , Queen DOUNG VAN NGA , and became ruler of DAI CO VIET in 1980 AD . Apart from Empress DOUNG VAN NGA , he had other wives like Empress PHUNG CAN CHI LY , Empress THUAN THANH MINH DAO , Empress TRINH QUAC and Empress PHAM . He had altogether 73 sons out of which 66 from concubines . He was born in 941 AD in AI Province . He rose to power as a General of HOA LU Warlord DINH BO LINH . After defeating all the eleven warlords in 968 AD , DINH BO LINH founded the DAI CO VIET Kingdom with LE HOAN as commander of the military of the Kingdom with title ‘General of Ten Circuits’ as he had fended off north invasion in 981 AD and led a seaborne invasion of the southern CHAMPA Kingdom in 982 AD .

EMPEROR LE HOAN AND HIS KINGSHIP

As we know that in late 979 AD , Emperor DINH BO LINH and his son DINH LIEN were slain by an official of the kingdom who was eunuch named as DO THICH while sleeping in the courtyard of the palace . Following the death of the Emperor DINH BO LINH and Prince DINH LIEN , his six year old son Prince DINH TOAN was enthroned as the King of DAI CO VIET . However , Queen DOUNG VAN NGA wanted LE HOAN to become the Ruler as it would better for the Kingdom in view of growing rebellions and threat from the northern SONG DYNASTY OF CHINA . So , DINH TOAN gave up the crown while LE HOAN took over the power with the reign name THIEN PHUC . He established five Queens as minor wives while Queen DOUNG VAN NGA remained as his first Lady . A part from that he appointed his family members including his brother and his sons to rule over other parts of the Kingdom . LE HOAN maintained the BUDDHIST patriarch KHOUNG VIET as the great preceptor in his court while a CHINESE named as HONGJIAN was appointed as the history expert of the court . Five years after a drought in 982 AD , he held a ROYAL PLOUGHING CEREMONY on two rice fields in 987 AD and put a pit of gold in each field . He also built the MAHAYANA NHAT temple in HOA LU in 995 AD . He left Inscriptions on it citing verses from the SURANGAMA SUTRA . The SURANGAMA SUTRA is a MAHAYANA BUDDHIST SUTRA that has been especially influential in CHAN BUDDHISM , a CHINESE school of MAHAYANA BUDDHISM became popular during TANG and SONG DYNASTIES .

LE HOAN RELATIONS WITH SONG CHINA & CHAMPA

The rebellions in DIA VIET attracted attention of the CHINESE SONG RULER , TAIZONG . He ordered HOU RENBAO to move into DAI VIET territory . In early 981 AD , the CHINESE navy under LIU CHENG defeated LE HOAN’S military on the BACH DANG RIVER . It caused killing of 1,000 DAI VIET sailors and seized 200 junks . On the other hand , HOU RENBAO urged his troops to March forward , but they moved little late until LIU CHENG finally arrived . Now the SONG land forces and navy regrouped at DA LA village to move forward to HOA BO . LE HOAN pretended to surrender . But he tricked HOU RENBAO forces to come near . Then he killed HOU RENBAO and massacred his troops . This resulted into the forced retreat of the SONG army . Their Generals were punished with summary execution in KAIFENG for military failures . And SONG DYNASTY RULER sent three envoys respectively in 986 AD , 990 AD and 998 AD to DAI VIET to normalize the relations between the two countries .

PARMESVARAVARMAN-I , the king of CHAMPA , attacked DAI VIET in 979 AD in the name of restoring NGO NHAT KHANH . (NGO NHAT KHANH was a VIETNAMESE warlord during the period of 12 warlords . However , KHANH was defeated by DINH BO LINH in 968 AD .) But the King of CHAMPA was stopped by a typhoon . The next year Emperor LE HOAN sent an embassy to CHAMPA . But King PARMESVARAVARMAN-I of CHAMPA detained him which annoyed LE HOAN who led an army to storm the south and liked King PARMESVARAVARMAN-I in the battle and sacked INDRAPURA . His Prince JAYA INDRAVARMAN-IV sought refuse in the extreme south . But LUU KE TONG , a VIETNAMESE officer in the CHAM army , seized power in CHAMPA who resisted LE HOAN’S attempt to remove him from power .

In 1005 AD , Emperor LE HOAN died at the age of 64 . A civil war for succession between his sons erupted . His 20 years old fifth son LE LONG DINH seized the throne after murdering his older brother LE LONG VIET who only held the crown in three days and ruled the country for next four years .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED …………………

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-99

VIETNAM ( SERIES -17 )

EMPEROR DINH BO LINH OF DAI CO VIET

DINH BO LINH was the founding Emperor of the DINH Dynasty of VIETNAM declaring independence from the HAN Dynasty of South CHINA . He ruled VIETNAM from 968 AD to 979 AD . He ensured political unity of VIETNAM in the 10th century by unifying VIETNAM by defeating all the twelve rebellious warlords and became the first Emperor of VIETNAM . Upon his accession to the throne, he renamed the country as DAI CO VIET . DINH BO LINH was also known as DINH TIEN HOAN . He was born in 924 AD in HOA LU . His father DINH CONG TRU had served both— DURONG DINH NGHE and NGO QUYEN as the Governor of HOAN . As per the CHINESE records , DINH BO LINH succeeded his father as the DUKE OF HOAN . His father died when he was still a child . Then he lived with his mother and other family members in a holy temple near a mountain in HOA LU . DINH BO LINH had a sister also whose name was DINH QUE HURONG . In 940s the young DINH BO LINH emrged as a leader of the village youths at a very young age . The traditional folk tell says that he then collected wood for his mother who had slaughtered a pig and put on a feast . Villagers sensed a great future leader in him . So they decided to follow him now before it was too late . They delivered their youths to DINH BO LINH and set up a base on his uncle lands . But his uncle was no longer eager to surrender his lands to DINH . So , DINH BO LINH sent his friends to attack on his uncle . And his uncle was trapped under a collapsed bridge and DINH’S friends were about to kill him , but they saw two yellow dragons flying above . His uncle withdrew and later submitted to him . A historian like OLIVER W. WOLTERS has considered this story as a ‘man of prowess’ possessing the ‘soul stuff’ befitting a chief . On the other hand when the long dominating CHINESE TANG DYNASTY in the entire region was in the process of disintegration and in the battle of BACH DANG RIVER in 938 AD , the warlord NGO QUYEN defeated the southern HAN forces , the first VIETNAMESE polity emerged in the region . But NGO DYNASTY was too weak to effectively unify VIETNAM . Upon the death of NGO King in 965 AD , DINH BO LINH seized the power and founded a new Kingdom , the capital of which was his home district of HOA LU . To claim his legitimacy to the throne , he married a woman of NGO family .

DINH BO LINH BECOMING EMPEROR

In the early years of his reign , DINH BO LINH was quite careful in ascertaining his relationship with the southern HAN . But in 968 AD , he took a provocative step of adopting the tile of Emperor and in this way declaring his independence from the CHINESE overlordship . He founded the DINH DYNASTY and called his Kingdom DAI CO VIET . When the powerful SONG DYNASTY annexed the southern HAN in 971 AD , he realized the importance of subjugation under the SONG DYNASTY , which due to its military powers by now , had been a dominant force in the region . The SONG DYNASTY was an Imperial Dynasty of CHINA that began in 960 AD and lasted until 1279 AD . Emperor TAIZU OF SONG founded this Dynasty by usurping the throne of later ZHOU . The SONG conquered the rest of the ten Kingdoms , thus , ending the five Dynasties and the ten Kingdoms . Realizing the might of this powerful Dynasty , DINH BO LINH of DAI CO VIET ingratiated himself in 972 AD with the SONG DYNASTY by sending a tribute mission to demonstrate his affiliation with the SONG DYNASTY . He sent cloths , rhinoceros horns , elephant tusks and perfumed tea to the court of the SONG DYNASTY . Subsequently , the Emperor TAIZU OF SONG DYNASTY recognized the DAI CO VIET Ruler as GIAO CHI meaning by a theoretical relationship of vassalage in submission to the Empire . On the other hand , DINH BO LINH obtained a non-aggression agreement in exchange for tributes payable to the CHINESE Court every three years .

ASSASSINATION OF DINH BO LINH

In October 979 AD , a eunuch called DO THICH killed the Emperor DINH BO LINH and the Prince DINH LIEN when they were sleeping in their palace at night , the General of the Emperor DINH BO LINH , LE HOAN took over power as Regent and five-year-old DINH TOAN occupied the throne . But rebellions erupted in the entire empire . At this juncture , the Emperor of the SONG DYNASTY sent troops under HOU RENBAO to restore the throne of the young prince . However , in view of the threat of continuous CHINESE intervention in the affairs of DIA VIET , the court officials proposed LE HOAN to be the Ruler of DAI VIET . They urged him to become King to establish a more stable government . In 980 AD , the Court officials and Generals gathered at HOA LU and Empress DURONG VAN NGA brought out the Emperor’s robes to put on LE HOAN, thus offered him the throne of DIA VIET . In this way the rule of DINH DYNASTY ended and transferred the power to LE family . He ruled the Kingdom of DAI VIET from 981 AD to 1005 AD .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ………………..

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-98

VIETNAM ( SERIES -16 )

THE HISTORY OF DAI VIET

DAI VIET or ANNAM , centred around the present-day HANOI and Northern VIETNAM , was the Kingdom of VIETNAM apart from CHAMPA from the 10th century AD to the early 19th century AD . Its earlier name was DAI CO VIET (968 AD to 1054 AD) which was established by a VIETNAMESE ruler called DINH BO LINH after the ending of the anarchy of the 12 warlords . The period of the 12 warlords was a period of chaos and civil war in the history of VIETNAM . It was the period from 944 AD to 968 AD . The four of the warlords were from CHINA . With the unification war of VIETNAM by DINH BO LINH , the DINH Dynasty was established . The name of those four CHINESE warlords were as follows : 1. DO CANH THAC ; 2. KIEU CONG HAN ; 3. NGUYEN THU TIEP ; and 4. NGUYEN SIEU . The name of the rest of eight warlords were as follows : 1. NGO XUONG XI ( of Thanh Hoa Province ) ; 2. TRAN LAM ( of Thai Binh Province ) ; 3. NGUYEN KHOAN ( of Vinh Phuc Province ) ; 4. NGO NHAT KHANH ( of SON Tay ) ; 5. LY KHUE ( of Bac Ninh Province ) ; 6. LA DURONG ( of Hung Yen Province ) ; 7. KIEU THUAN ( of Phu Tho Province ) ; and 8. PHAM BACH HO ( of Hung Yen Province ) . However , the recent findings suggests that there were 13th Lord also whose name was DUONG HUY who ruled a region to the South-East of CO LAO . DINH BO LINH was said to have hold some posts in HOAN CHAU . But he lost his positions and went back to HOA LU in 950 AD . He became there an abortive son and subordinate general to TRAN LAM . Considering him as a reasonable leader who could rule the Province , TRAM LAM retired and gave all power to him . DINH BO LINH who was a man of courage and valor led the army to occupy HOA LU which later on became the national capital under his reign afterward .

DINH BO LINH’S UNIFICATION WAR

The adopted son of LORD TRAN LAM , who ruled the region of BO HAI KHAU ( NOW THAI BINH PROVINCE ) DINH BO LINH succeeded LAM after his death . He defeated all the eleven major warlords in 968 AD and reunified the nation under his rule . In the same year he ascended the throne . He proclaimed himself Emperor with the title DINH TIEN HOANG and established the DINH DYNASTY . And he renamed the nation as DAI CO VIET . He moved the capital to HOA LU . Now-a-days it is known as NINH BINH . DINH BO LINH was respected as VAN THANG VUONG ( the King of ten thousand victories ) . He began by defeating LA XU BINH in CO LOA . The battle with DO KANH THAC in DO DONG GIANG took over a year until DINH BO LINH seized the fortress and DO KANH GIANG and DO KANH THAC was killed . Ìn TAY PHU LIET , NGUYEN SIEU lost four of his Generals in the first battle with DINH BO LINH . In the second battle , he split his army in half to seek backup . However , their ships were wrecked . DINH BO LINH commanded his soldiers to set fire to the camps of enemies’ remaining army . NGUYEN SIEU died shortly . By the beginning of 968 AD , DINH BO LINH after defeating and killing NGUYEN THU TIEP , KIEU CONG HAN , NGUYEN KHOAN , KIEU THUAN , LY KHUE and LA DURONG, ended the battle and DINH BO LINH successfully united the divided region of DAI VIET . He also convinced other warlords like PHAM BACH HO , NGO XUONG and NGO NHAT KHANH to surrendered and joined his army .

EIGHT DYNASTIES OF DAI VIET

The history of DAI VIET could be divided into the rule of eight Dynasties . They were as follows : 1. DINH ( 968 AD to 980 AD ) ; 2. EARLY LY ( 980 AD to 1009 AD ) ; 3. LY ( 1009 AD to 1226 AD ) ; 4. TRAN ( 1226 AD to 1400 AD ) ; 5. HO ( 1400 AD to 1407 AD ) ; 6. LATER LE ( 1428 AD to 1789 AD ) ; 7. MAC ( 1527 AD to 1677 AD ) ; and TAY SON ( 1778 AD to 1802 AD ) . For the short period , it was briefly intrupted by the HO Dynasty ( 1400 AD to 1407 AD ) who changed the name of the country as DAI NGU for the short period . And the fourth eŕa of Northern Domination started when the region was ruled as JIAOZHI by the MINGD YNASTY from 1407 AD to 1427 AD . Again the history of DAI VIET could be divided ìnto periods : 1. Unified Empire which lasted from 960 AD to 1533 AD ; and 2. Fragmented DAI VIET from 1533 AD to 1802 AD when there were more than one Dynasty and noble clans simultaneously ruling from their own domains . And from 13th to 18th century , the border of DAI VIET expanded to encompass the territories and regions that resembled VIETNAM of today . This region lies along the South CHINA sea from the Gulf of TONKIN to the Gulf of THAILAND . DAI VIET emerged in 960s as a hereditary monarchy with MAHAYANA BUDDHISM as state religion . And it lasted for six centuries . From 16th century onwards it was gradually weakened and decentralized into many sub-kingdoms . However , it was briefly unified by the TAY SON brothers in 1786 AD . It was divided among themselves by the TAY SON brothers in 1787 AD . However , again DAI VIET was reunified after TRINH-NGUYEN war which ended in NGUYEN victory and destruction of TAY SON . In this way DAI VIET was reunified after three hundred years of fragmentation . But from 968 AD to 1804 AD , DAI VIET acquired significant power in the region which annexed CHAMPA slowly and some parts of KHMER territory gradually . And thus , the VIETNAMESE territories expanded to the south and west also .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED …………..

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-97

VIETNAM ( SERIES -15 )

PEOPLE , SOCIETY AND CULTURE OF CHAMPA

CHAMPA was formed in about 192 AD . It was during the break up of the HAN DYNASTY of CHINA that the HAN official in charge of the region established his own kingdom around the area of the present day city of HUE . Initially the area was inhibited mainly by wild tribes . They involved in incessant struggles with the CHINESE colonies in TONKIN . Later on they came under INDIAN cultural influence and decentralized their country into four regions all named after INDIAN name of places . They were : 1. AMARAVATI ( QUANG NAM ) ; 2. VIJAYA ( BINH DINH ) ; 3. KAUTHARA ( NHA TRANG ) ; and 4. PANDURANGA ( PHAN RANG ) . They were all concentrated along small coastal enclaves . Though historians and anthropologists vary on the question of races of ancient CHAMPA , yet most of them are of the opinion that the CHAM and KIRATA people were the ancient inhabitants of CHAMPA . About CHAM , a CHINESE writer has written that they were of black colour having deep eyes and thick hair . They used to wear LUNGI in the loin and no upper garment at all . Common men remained ware foot and rich people used to wear leather shoes . Both — men and women used to shape their hair . They used to wear earrings in their ears . In the fifth century another CHINESE writer has written that in one part CHAM people used to walk ware foot , wore earrings in their ears and boys and girls used to roam naked without any hesitation as such . In scorching heat of summer season they never used to cover their body and roaming in the sun heat . That’s why their colour became black and they used to consider it as a gift of the nature . According to SCHUMIDT , the people of similar race that of the MUNDA tribes found in the CENTRAL INDIA and CHHOTA NAGPUR resions inhibited in the entire INDOCHINA and in the Island of South-East ASIA . They came there through the INDIAN states like ASSAM and MANIPUR .

SOCIETY OF CHAMPA

R.C. MAJUMDAR , a historian from INDIA in his book CHAMPA , has written that like INDIA the society of CHAMPA/ANNAM was divided into four VARNA i.e BRAHMIN , KSHATRIYA , VAISYA and SHUDRA . BRAHMIN were respected in the society and killing of BRAHMIN was considered as very bad . GOTRA and VANSA were considered during the time of marriage . Marriage were performed by BRAHMINS . It was celebrated like a religious ceremony . Like in INDIA , SATI System was prevailing in the society . It was a traditionally accepted System in which wife had to be self-immolated on the pyre of her dead husband . Like INDIAN HINDU months , the year started with the month of CHAITRA . Like INDIA the month started with new moòn . Similarly like HINDUS , dead body was immolated/burnt in fire . Almost all Inscriptions in CHAMPA were written in SANSKRIT language . But somewhere they were written in local CHAM language also . People of higher class used to study SANSKRIT . King BHADRAVARMAN had knowledge of all the four VEDAS . King INDRAVARMAN-III had perfect knowledge of the INDIAN PHILOSOPHY . Similarly , King JAYA INDRAVARMAN DEV VII had knowledge of the VYAKARNA ( GRAMMAR ) OF PANINI , the INDIAN ASTROLOGY and MAHAYANA BUDDHISM . Indian Epics like RAMAYANA AND MAHABHARATAS were also read ìn CHAMPA/ANNAM . Name of SRI RAM , SRI KRISHNA , LORD VISHNU and LORD SHIVA could be found in the Inscriptions of CHAMPA . Temple of BHAGAVATI PO NAGAR could be seen as an impact of INDIAN culture on CHAMPA . Of course , somewhere traces of CHINESE culture could also be observed . But ancient CHAMPA was mostly under influence of the INDIAN culture .

SEAFARING CULTURE OF CHAMPA

The CHAMS had a seafaring culture due to their coastal location . They controlled the trade in spices and silk between CHINA , INDIA , INDONESIA and PERSIA . They were highly cosmopolitan people . And that culture was heavily influenced by HINDU beliefs adopted from INDIA . It helped in establishing and maintaining a vast system of lucrative trade networks across the region connecting the INDIAN Ocean and Eastern ASIA . CHAM people also developed the first and oldest native South-East ASIAN language . It was being written down around 350 AD , predating first KHMER , MON , MALAY texts by centuries as such . The kingdom of CHAMPA had multiethnic population . It consisted of AUSTRONESIAN CHAMIC-Speaking people which constituted majority of its demography . On the other hand HINDUISM , adopted through conquest and conflicts from neighbouring FUNAN in the fourth century AD , shaped the art and culture of CHAMPA for centuries . Reflection of which could be seen in CHAM HINDU statues and red bricks temples . A former religious centre MY SON and a CHAMPA main port city HOI AN are now world heritage city . Many CHAM people adhered to ISLAM in the tenth century through conversion . However , the ruling Dynasty adopted the faith in the seventeenth century . Such converted people were called BANI ( NI TUC ) . There are , however , the BECAM ( CHIEM TAC ) who still follow and preserve the HINDU faith and beliefs . They follow HINDU rituals and festivals . The BECAM is one of the two surviving non-indic indigenous HINDU people in the world . The other is the BALINESE HINDUISM of BALI of INDONESIA .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED …………………..

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-96

VIETNAM ( SERIES -14 )

DECLINING DYNASTIES OF CHAMPA

VIRBHADRAVARMAN was the King of CHAMPA from 1441 AD to 1444 AD . He was the grandson of a great King like JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-VI . But his grandmother Queen PARAMESVARI was a concubine of King JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-VI . He was also from VRSU DYNASTY of CHAMPA . He was the nephew of his predecessor King INDRAVARMAN-VI . His religion was HINDUISM . But much is not known about him . And he was succeeded by an unknown King probably called MAHA KALI. According to the VIETNAMESE Cronicles MAHA VIJAYA had usurped the throne from MAHA KALI . In 1444 AD , war broke out between CHAMPA and DAI VIET . And the King of DAI VIET , LE NHAN TONG sent a fleet from NGHE AN to the coast of BINH DINH . He ransacked the CHAM capital and captured MAHA VIJAYA in 1446 AD . MAHA VIJAYA was put behind the bars in HANOI . And his brother MAHA KALI , who was previously overthrown by MAHA VIJAYA , was installed again as a puppet King of CHAMPA . From 1446 AD to 1460 AD all most all monarchs were puppets . In 1460 AD , MAHA SAJAN took over the reign of CHAMPA . He ruled CHAMPA from 1460 AD to 1471 AD . His predecessor was MAHA SAYA . And 1471 AD was the year of the fall of CHAMPA . In a reaction to a CHAM raid against HOA CHAU, the Emperor of DAI VIET , LE THANH TONG invaded CHAMPA . VIETNAMESE captured the CHAM capital of VIJAYA . They butchered more than 60,000 people and imprisoned another 30,000 . PAN-LO TOU-TS’IUAN was captured . He became ill and died on junk taking him away . This was the final defeat of CHAMPA . Later it was divided into three principalities under the protection of DAI VIET .

INCESSANT WÀRS OF AGGRESSION IN CHAMPA

By the late fifteenth century , CHAMPA faced incessant wars of aggression which wiped out the CHAMPA Kingdom . One by one their provinces were annexed until CHAMPA was entirely absorbed in the seventeenth century . PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN was the Ruler of CHAMPA from 1780 AD to 1793 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN TA . He was born in BAL CANAR , PANDURANGA , CHAMPA . His predecessor was PO TISUNTIRAIDAPAGHOH . A descendant of PO SAKTIRAYDAPATIH , PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN was appointed the Ruler of CHAMPA with the title CAI CO by NYUYEN LORD . We all know that since 1771 AD , CHAMPA was victim of VIETNAMESE civil war . Thus the fate of CHAMPA was dependent on the outcome of the civil war between the TAY SON DYNASTY and the NYUYEN LORDS . PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN supported TAY SON rebels in 1782 AD . So , he was regarded as a traitor by NGUYEN ANH . In 1788 AD , NGUYEN ANH appointed PO KREI BREI and PO LADHUANPUGUH as co-ruĺer of CHAMPA . PO KREI BREI was a CHAMPA prince and a brother of PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN . In 1790 AD , NGUYEN ANH retook GIA DINH (PRESENTLY THE CITY OF HO CHI MINH) . At the same time we should also know that NGUYEN ANH was the founding Emperor of NGUYEN DYNASTY . It was the last Dynasty of VIETNAM . His Dynasty would rule the unified territories that constitutes modern day VIETNAM until 1945 AD . Anyway , PO KREI and PO LADHUANPUGUH when jointly were appointed co-ruĺer of CHAMPA by NGUYEN ANH , PO KREI BREI was a civilian governor with the title CHURONG CO , while PO LADHUANPUGUH was the military governor with title like CAI CO . Since then CHAMPA was regarded as province of VIETNAM rather than an independent country . In 1795 AD , however , PO KREI BREI was deposed and he with his family was forced to seek refuse in CAMBODIA .

THE PROVINCE CHAMPA OF VIETNAM

After PO KREI BREI was deposed , PO LADHUANPUGUH was promoted to CHUONG CO of CHAMPA . Now he was the sole ruler of CHAMPA . During his period a MALAY nobleman TUAN PHAOW revolted against the NGUYEN LORDS in 1796 AD . It was PO LADHUANPUGUH who helped NGUYEN LORDS to put down rebellion . In the following year , TUAN PHAOW was defeated and fled to KELANTAN . But PO LADHUANPUGUH died in 1799 AD . He was succeeded by PO SAONG NHUNG CENG who ruled CHAMPA from 1799 AD to 1822 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN CHAN . He joined the NGUYEN army in 1790 AD . He was appointed as the Viceroy or the Deputy Ruler of CHAMPA in 1794 AD . He was succeeded by PO KLAN THU in 1822 AD who ruled CHAMPA from 1822 AD to 1828 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN VINH . He was first appointed as a Viceroy in 1807 AD and then he succeeded to PO SAONG NHUNG CENG after his death in 1822 AD amid iñternal tussle between the VIETNAMESE Emperor MINH MANG and the VIETNAMESE General LE VAN DUYET for the next ruler of CHAMPA . He was succeeded by PO PHAOK THE who ruled CHAMPA from 1829 AD to 1832 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN THURA . He was appointed by the Viceroy of Southern VIETNAM , LE VAN DUYET without the permission of VIETNAMESE Emperor MINH MANG . PO PHAOK THE was granted the VIETNAMESE title like THUAN THANH TRAN KHAM SAI THONG BINH CAI CO . And PO DHAR KAOK was appointed as his Viceroy . During his reign CHAMPA ended its relationship with the HUE COÙRT OF VIETNAM . Instead they only sent tribute to LE VAN DUYET, the Viceroy of the southern VIETNAM or COCHINCHINA . But soon after the death of LE VAN DUYET in 1832 AD , Emperor MINH MANG of VIETNAM appointed new Viceroy of Southern VIETNAM and CHAMPA was annexed by VIETNAM . PO PHAOK THE and his Deputy PO DHAR KAOK were captured and brought to the HUE COÙRT where PÒ PHAOK THE was granted the VIETNAMESE title like DIEN AN BA first and then in 1835 AD , both — PO PHAOK THE and PO DHAR KAOK were executed by Emperor MINH MANG of VIETNAM . PO PHAOK THE was the last ruler of CHAMPA .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ……………

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-95

VIETNAM ( SERIES -13 )

JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-IV AND OTHER JAYA KINGS OF CHAMPA

JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-IV or MAHENDRAVARMAN or CHE CHI was the son of CHE MAN and the first queen Princess BHASKARADEVI . He was born in 1284 AD as Prince HARIJITATMAJA . He ruled CHAMPA from 1307 AD to 1312 AD . As we know that his DAI VIET’S mother refused to die with his father CHE MAN on the name of SATI , so he went to recapture the two districts ceded by CHAMPA to DAI VIET in the past . But he was defeated by the King of DAI VIET . He was then arrested and put behind the bars . And after his arrest by the DAI VIET King , his brother CHE DA A BA or CHE NANG was deputed to govern CHAMPA by the King of DAI VIET .

VASSAL KING CHE NANG OF CHAMPA

CHE NANG was the son of King JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-III and his JAVANESE queen TAPASI . He was a DAI VIET Vassal King of CHAMPA . His name was also SIMHAVARMAN . During his reign , he tried to conquer previously lost territories of O and LY of CHAMPA . As a result , TRAN MINH TONG , the then VIETNAMESE Emperor , sent General TRAN QUOC CHAN and General PHAM NGU LAO in 1318 AD to defeat CHE NANG . And CHE NANG could not face these Generals and was defeated . After defeat , he fled away to JAVA at his maternal uncle place as such .

KING JAYA ANANDA OF CHAMPA

JAYA ANANDA or CHE A NAN was made King of CHAMPA after CHE NANG fled to JAVA . He reigned CHAMPA from 1318 AD to 1336 AD . He won the independence of CHAMPA against TRAN MINH TONG , the fifth Emperor of DAI VIET in 1326 AD . His real name was PATALTHOR . He was originally from TRAN DYNASTY. But he got high military rank in CHAMPA which made him succeeded to the throne . After his death in 1336 AD , his brother-in-law TRA HOA BO DE fought for the throne for six years . His legitimate heir was CHE MO . CHE MO fled to the court of TRAN DO TONG , the seventh Emperor of the TRAN DYNASTY of DAI VIET . He died there in 1353 AD soon after a failed expedition to restore his throne of CHAMPA as such . And his brother-in-law TRA HOA BO DE became the King of CHAMPA the same year who ruled CHAMPA uptil 1360 AD .

KING CHE BONG NGH OF CHAMPA

CHE BONG NGH or CEI BUNGA ruled CHAMPA from 1360 AD to 1390 AD . He is also known as the RED KING in the VIETNAMESE stories . BUNGA is the MALAY word for flower . And CHE is the VIETNAMESE transliteration of CEI . In the CHAM language it means uncle . It was frequently used in CHAMPA for General . His issues included CHE MA NO DA NAN , CHE SO NA and an unknown daughter . He was ruler of 13th Dynasty of CHAMPA . He was also known as PO BINASUOR . But he should not be confused with PO BINNASUAR , the King of PANDURANGA who ruled from 1316 AD to 1361 AD . He was the last strong King of the Kingdom of CHAMPA . And he died in 1390 AD .

KING KO CHENG OF CHAMPA

Following the death of CHE BONG NGA by a musketry Salvo , KO CHENG or LA KHAI became the King of CHAMPA from 1390 AD to 1400 AD . He was the General of CHE BONG NGA who retreated back to CHAMPA in 1390 AD and declared himself as the King of CHAMPA . He usurped the two sons of CHE BONG NGA namely : 1. CHE MA-NO DA-NAN ; and 2. CHE SAN-NO . His regnal name was SRI JAYA SIMHAVARMAN DEVA or JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-VI . And name of his Dynasty was VRSU DYNASTY . And his wife’s name was PARMESVARI . But during his reign , he abandoned most of the territories won by his predecessor, King CHE BONG NGH .

KING INDRAVARMAN-VI OF CHAMPA

INDRAVARMAN-VI was the King of CHAMPA from 1400 AD to 1441 AD . He took the regnal name as INDRAVARMAN-VI when crowned in 1432 AD . Otherwise his name was BA DICH LAI , CHANG PA TI LAI, VIRABHADRAVARMAN or NGAUK KLAUNG VIJAYA . He was also from VRSU DYNASTY , that’s why his name also was VRSUVAMSA . He was the son of King SIMHAVARMAN-VI . During his reign , CHAM sphere of influence penetrated deep into the present day Central Highlands . Central Highlands is one of the regions of VIETNAM . Region wise VIETNAM is divided into three regions namely : 1. CENTRAL HIGHLANDS ; 2. WESTERN HIGHLANDS ; and 3. MIDLAND HIGHLANDS . In 1403 AD , VIETNAMESE resumed their hostility . They led seige of the capital of CHAMPA , VIJAYA . However , they faced defeat there and were forced to leave VIJAYA after nine months . In 1405 AD , King INDRAVARMAN-VI filed a memorial to the court of MING DYNASTY of CHINA convincing him that DAI NGU king HO HAN THUONG had been violating his borders by conducting raids in his Kingdom in the previous year . And accordingly the DAI NGU was defeated by the MING DYNASTY in 1407 AD . Then INDRAVARMAN-VI managed to recoñquer the ĺost territory of CHAMPA in the south of HAI VAN PASS . A sitting LORD SIVA statue was erected in DRANG LAI , GIA LAI following that victory . Again to celebrate the victory over DAI VIET , he ordered the establishment of a city called SAMRDDHIPURI in 1409 AD . On the other hand , in view of declining KHMER Empire , he attacked the ANKOR territories which compelled the CAMBODIAN King PONHEA YAT to seek intervention from the CHINESE MING DYNASTY . So , in 1408 AD and even in 1414 AD , MING army from recently occupied JIAOZHI ( FORMER DAI VIET ) entered into CHAMPA and threatened INDRAVARMAN-VI about the consequences of such hostility against CAMBODIA . Despite such threat from MING army , King INDRAVARMAN-VI invaded CAMBODIAN territories in the MEKONG DELTA and annexed many parts of it including the well known marketing town of BIEN HOA . He also installed a statue of LORD TRIBHUVANAKRANTA ( LORD VISHNU ) there to mark the southern most extent of the Kingdom of CHAMPA . On the other hand , he , in order to maintain neutrality with DAI VIET , gave up the important province of INDRAPURA in favour of DAI VIET .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ………………..

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-94

VIETNAM ( SERIES -12 )

SOME OTHER KINGS OF CHAMPA

As we know that the regnal of the CHAMPA Rulers were originated from the HINDU tradition . Titles of the king prefixed like : JAYA ( VICTORY ) , MAHA ( GREAT ) , SRI ( GLORY ) etc. Similarly , their aliases were like : BHADRAVARMAN , VIKRANTAVARMAN , RUDRAVARMAN , SIMHAVARMAN , INDRAVARMAN , PARMESVARAVARMAN , HARIVARMAN etc. And all such aliases were suffixed with VARMAN which belonged to the caste KSHATRIYA as such . And the historical records states that the last king of CHAMPA was deposed by MINH MANG in 1832 . MING MANG or MINH MENH ( Literary meaning : The bright favour of Heaven ) who was the second Emperor of NGUYEN Dynasty of VIETNAM who reigned from 14th February 1820 AD until his death on 20th January 1841 AD .

KING JAYA INDRAVARMAN-VI OF CHAMPA INDRAVARMAN-VI was the King of CHAMPA from 1254 AD to 1257 AD . He was the grandson of JAYA HARIVARMAN-I and the younger brother of JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II . He was said to be a very peaceful Sovereign . He was well versed in all branches of knowledge including the philosophies of various schools . However , he was assassinated by his nephew , INDRAVARMAN-V . INDRAVARMAN-V , after assassinating his uncle King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-VI , became king of CHAMPA whose reign began in 1257 AD . But his coronation was performed only in 1266 AD as such . He had three wives namely : 1. PARAMARATNASTRI ; 2. SURYALAKSMI ; and 3. GAURENDRAKSMI . He had two issues : 1. JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-III ; and 2. PRINCESS SURYADEVI . King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-V was a very strong-hearted man . He declined to submit himself in person to the MONGOL King KUBLAI KHAN . However , he subjected himself to the humiliation of the MONGOL commanders SOGETU and LIU CHONG dividing his kingdom into administrative unites . SUGETU launch an invasion of CHAMPA in 1282 AD forcing INDRAVARMAN-V and his son CHE MAN or HARIJIT to flee to mountains .

PRINCE CHE MAN OR HARIJIT & CHAMPA

In 1282 AD , MONGOL Emperor KUBLAI KHAN tried to gain passage through CHAMPA of his Ambassadors . But Prince CHE MAN took them all as prisoners . KUBLAI KHAN then asked the TRAN Dynasty of DAI VIET for entrance into CHAMPA . But he received denial from DAI VIET . So in early 1283 AD , he dispatch a fleet of 100 Warship led by SOGETU and invaded CHAMPA . Attack with such a huge YUAN troops with their naval and armor superiority compelled CHAM people to drive out of the capital of VIJAYA . INDRAVARMAN-V and crown prince CHE MAN ( HARIJIT ) fled into the mountains . From there they started waging guerrilla resistance against the enemy and refused to surrender . All this forced the MONGOLS to suffer heat , illness , lack of supplies and desertion . Then SOGETU requested KUBLAI KHAN for reinforcement and supplies . Whereupon KUBLAI KHAN quickly responded and sent a fleet of 20,000 troops and 200 Warships under QUTUQ and ARIQ QAYA . The YUAN logistics arrived CHAMPA in April 1284 AD . But due to lack of coordination the YUAN troops could not catch up the warring SOGETU forces which had already marched northward destroying CHAM Port cities along his way north . Still King INDRAVARMAN-V and Prince CHE MAN were quite adamant to bow before KUBLAI KHAN which the latter found dishonored . On the other hand facing unexpected CHAM defiance , KUBLAI KHAN ordered his eleventh son Prince TOGHON to organise a lañd invasion of CHAMPA through DAI VIET . But the DAI VIET King then aligned with CHAMPA . They decisively defeated YUAN forces in June 1285 AD at the battle of CHUONG DUONG . And the death of the top MONGOL leader , SAGATOU , was virtually the beginning of the end of the MONGOL invasion of CHAMPA and ANNAM .

PRINCE CHE MAN MARRIAGE WITH HUYEN TRAN , THE DAI VIET PRINCESS

The mutual fighting against MONGOL brought DAI VIET and CHAMPA close together . This resulted in the marriage of the daughter Princess HUYEN TRAN of DAI VIET Emperor TRAN NHAN TONG with Prince CHE MAN of CHAMPA in exchange for the provinces of CHAU O and CHAU LY . His other ‘first rank wife’ or ‘first queen’ was BHASKARADEVI . His marriage didn’t end here . He also married a prince from JAVA whose name was Princess TAPASI . He ruled CHAMPA from 1288 AD to 1307 AD under title name of King JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-III . When he was still a junior King or Prince , he authorized the construction of a temple dedicating for the lady of KAUTHARA at PO NAGAR temple of NHA TRANG . During his reign JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-III donated several structures and pavilions to PO KLAUNG GARAI at PHANG RANG . He also started construction of YANG PRONG , another religious temple located in EA SUP District in Central Highlands . However , he died soon after the Princess HUYEN TRANG refused to die with her husband on the name of SATI . It was considered as the national disgrace to CHAMPA . In response to this , CHE MAN’S son CHE CHI set out to recapture two districts ceded in the past by CHAMPA to DAI VIET . But he was defeated and was arrested by DAI VIET . He died there as a prisoner .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED …………….

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-93

VIETNAM ( SERIES -11 )

KING JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III OF CHAMPA

JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III was the King of CHAMPA from 1139 AD to 1145 AD . He was the adopted son of HARIVARMAN-V . Since he was heirless , so he abdicated the throne in 1129 AD . His adopted son , JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III , was nominated for crown prince of CHAMPA in 1133 AD . In 1139 AD , INDRAVARMAN-III ascended as the King of MANDALA CHAMPA . His religion was HINDUISM . Though much is not known about the King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III , yet it was the fact that he left elaboration in THAP MAM STYLE in BINH DINH , building temples and endorsements at MY SON sanctuaries in QUANG NAM in 1140 AD as such . Instead he made an eulogy for Lady PO YANG INO NAGAR at the PO NAGAR temple in NHA TRANG three years later . JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III refused to join KHMER EMPIRE’S meaningless and wasteful campaigns against DAI VIET as he had a peace deal with the former in 1136 AD as such . We should know that DAI VIET was in a vulnerable position due to its internal conflicts and series of wars with their neighbors . In 1127 AD , the twelve-years-old Crown Prince LY DURONG HOAN became the new ruler of DAI VIET . The King SURYAVARMAN-II of the KHMER demanded DAI VIET to pay tribute for the KHMER Empire . But VIETNAMESE refused to pay tribute to the KHMERS . So , SURYAVARMAN-II decided to expand his territory northward into VIETNAMESE territory . But after a failed attempt continuously to capture southern part of DAI VIET , SURYAVARMAN-II turned to invade CHAMPA in 1145 AD . He entered into the CHAM capital of VIJAYA . He ransacked the city . And destroyed the temples at MY SON . INDRAVARMAN-III disappeared amidst the chaos of war . But historian like GEORGES MASPERO , in his book THE CHAMPA KINGDOM , has anticipated that JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III was either killed or captured by the KHMER .

KING JAYA INDRAVARMAN-IV OF CHAMPA

From 1145 AD to 1167 AD , the Kingdom of CHAMPA appeared to have passed through weak Kings like RUDRAVARMAN-IV from 1145 AD to 1147 AD amid the ANKOR invasion of CHAMPA . But he never reigned. Similarly , from 1147/49 AD to 1162/67 AD , a CHAM noble JAYA HARIVARMAN-I spent much of his time to consolidate his control over CHAMPA during the 12th century KHMER-CHAM wars . He was succeeded by his son JAYA HARIVARMAN-II about whom no history is found . Then came the period of King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-IV of CHAMPA who ruled from 1167 AD to 1192 AD . He probably was the same person as the Ruler of PANDURANGA whose name was PO KLONG GARAI . As usurper of the reign of CHAMPA , he called himself as JAYA INDRAVARMAN on Vatu and he used to say that he had come from the ‘ famous place known by the name GRAMAPURAVIJAYA ‘. He was full of energy , courage and pride . He was well versed in all the SHASTRA . The SHASTRAS are all ancient INDIAN Literatures as such . He also sent tributes to the court of the SONG DYNASTY of CHINA and even the DAI VIET . But he was unsuccessful in purchasing horses from CHINA for an overland invasion . So , he prepared a squadron of water vessels . He invaded KHMER Empire in 1177 AD . His naval forces traveled upto MEKONG and TONLE SAP rivers and sacked ANKOR and killed TRIBHUVANADITYAVARMAN . King TRIBHUVANADITYAVARMAN was the Ruler of the KHMER Empire who ruled from 1166 AD to 1177 AD . He was a MANDARIN who around 1165 AD overthrew YASOVARMAN-II by assassinating him and proclaimed himself às the King of CAMBODIA . So , King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-IV entered the KHMER capital in 1177 AD and got rid of the country by usurper by killing the then King . He died in 1192 AĎ . His name JAYA in SANSKRIT means VICTORIOUS and INDRA means POSSESSING DROPS OF RAIN . INDRA was a HINDU mythological WARRIOR GOD .

KING JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II OF CHAMPA

JAYA JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II was the King of CHAMPA from 1220 AD to 1254 AD . He was the grandson of JAYA HARIVARMAN-I . But he was raised in the court of JAYAVARMAN-VII . JAYAVARMAN-VII was the King of KHMER Empire and he was considered as the most powerful Monarch of KHMER Empire by the historians . And he was the first King devoted to Buddhism . He ruled from 1181 AD to 1218 AD as such . Anyway , JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II attained the rank of YUVARAJA ( PRINCE ) in 1201 AD . He led the KHMER Empire’s attack on DAI VIET in 1207 AD . But when KHMER voluntarily evacuated CHAMPA in 1220 AD , Prince ANGSARAJA , in a coronation ceremony in 1226 AD at the city of VIJAYA in CHAMPA , declared himself as the King of CHAMPA with his regnal name of King JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II . As a king of CHAMPA , he restored irrigation works , ruins and LINGAS . He also donated numerous rice fields and slaves of different countries like that of CAMBODIA , CHAMPA , CHINA , SIAM and PAGAN to the temple of PO NAGAR at NHA TRANG . In 1234 AD , he got it installed an image of SVAYAMUTPANNA in PHAN RANG . He also offered war prisoners and trophies to the God of SRIPATISVARA at the sanctuary of SVAYAMUTPANNA . These donations included nine captured KHMER , twenty two SIAMESE , one PAGANESE and a KHMER male elephant . However , CHAMPA’S non-stop territorial growth in 1252 AD made the VIETNAMESE King TRAN THAI TONG irritated enough to retaliate . So , he attacked CHAMPA and captured JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-I’S concubine named as BO LA GIA and took other prisoners as well . And a historian like GEORGES MASPERO in his book THE CHAMPA KINGDOM has vividly described all that .

A NOVEL BY ARBIND KUMAR AVAILABLE ON AMAZON.IN & FLIPKART

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ………………

THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-92

VIETNAM ( SERIES -10 )

KING PARAMABOĎHISATVA OF CHAMPA

PARAMABHODHISATVA reigned CHAMPA from 1081 AD to 1086 AD . As we know he usurped power from his 10 years old nephew JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II . He was a staunch BUDDHIST . Prince PANG and his elder brother Prince THANG were born into a noble family of both northern and southern CHAM ancestry . Both the brothers had adventured into CHAM civil war which had been lasting for sixteen years . According to King PARAMABHODHISATVA , King RUDRAVARMAN-III was taken away from the capital by rebels . The country of CHAMPA had descended into chaos . More than ten people had declared themselves King of CHAMPA . And they were fighting against each other . The Kingdom was virtually devastated . Prince PANG defeated a self-proclaimed ruler of PHAN RANG at a battle . After spending fighting off warlord factions for years , these two brothers reunified CHAMPA . As we know that after the retirement of his elder brother King HARIVARMAN-III in 1080 AD , his son JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II was crowned as the King of CHAMPA at the age of nine who didn’t know how to govern the Kingdom properly . So , he usurped power in 1081 AD from his nephew king JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II . Prince PANG entitled himself as PARAMABHODHISATVA , ruled over CHAMPA with no opposition as such . He was a devout BUDDHIST . During his period the relation with SONG CHINA appeared to be quite absent . The new King and his family gave royal splendors to the temple of PO NAGAR . His gifts included elephants , electrum ornaments , sea jewelries and precious stones . And King’s eldest sister , princess GARBHALAKSMI donated the Goddess PO NAGAR pure gold as such . But in 1086 AD , he was dethroned by his nephew JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II .

KING JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II OF CHAMPA

JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II was the son of King HARIVARMAN-IV who ruled CHAMPA for two periods varying from 1080 AD to 1081 AD and from 1086 AD till his death in 1113 AD . He was also from HARIVARMANID DYNASTY . A staunch HINDU King , JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II , reestablished himself back to the crown after launching a Coup in 1086 AD . He resumed the relationship with the SONG DYNASTY of CHINA . In 1103 AD , King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II was persuaded by a VIETNAMESE refugee who had fled to CHAMPA to retake three northern provinces that were believed to be usurped by DAI VIET in the previous decades . His campaign in this effect was successful at the first , but he could not retained those three states for long as such . Ultimately those three states went back to DAI VIET after a few months only . The reign of JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II remained by and large peaceful until his death in 1113 AD . During his period , most of the temples of CHAMPA were restored . Moreover , infrastructural developments started in MY SON . He also initiated the elaboration of the THAP MAM STYLE . And after his death in in 1113 AD , he was succeeded by one of his nephews called HARIVARMAN-V .

HARIVARMAN-V was the King of CHAMPA from 1114 AD to 1129 AD . His original name was Prince SUNDARADEV . His predecessor King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-II had ruled CHAMPA for thirty years without any heir . So , a nephew was appointed as the King of MANDALA CHAMPA . Here MANDALA means federation . Since long CHAMPA was a federation of small princely states as such . His reign was by and large peaceful . Like his predecessor , he also sent deplomatic missions to the SONG DYNASTY of CHINA in 1116 AD and 1120 AD respectively . In return , he was enfeoffed by the CHINESE Court as ‘ GRAND MASTER OF THE PALACE WITH GOLDEN SEAL AND PUEPLE RIBBON ‘. King HARIVARMAN-V made several donations and buildings to the sanctuaries at MY SON . And due to lack of a suitable heir , he nominated his adopted son the title of DEVARAJA in 1129 AD and the crown prince in 1133 AD . And in 1139 AD , the crown prince was ascended to the throne with regnal name as JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III . King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III ruled from 1139 AD to 1145 AD as such .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ……………..