VIETNAM ( SERIES -37 )
TWENTY YEARS DOMINATION OF CHINA
Now fourth era of Northern Domination over DAI VIET started from 1407 AD to 1427 AD . The MING DYNASTY of CHINA ruled it as its own thirteenth province called JIAOZHI/GIAO CHI . The CHINESE rule over DAI VIET in the past, collectively known as BAC THUOC, which intermittently lasted for about 1000 years . And the fourth period of CHINESE rule over DAI VIET remained for twenty years . And it lasted in 1427 AD with the establishment of the reign of LATER LE DYNASTY . We have already studied about how HO QUY LY , a radical intellectual and reformer , massacred the TRAN house before usurping the throne of DAI VIET . In 1404 AD , TRAN THIEN BINH , claiming to be a TRAN prince , arrived at NANJING in the Imperial court of MING DYNASTY . He was actually a pretender to the throne of DAI VIET during the HO DYNASTY . He was a fake prince and his real name was NGUYEN KHANG . He appealed to the Imperial Court that the TRAN DYNASTY be restored in DAI VIET as HO has usurped the throne by killing members of the TRAN family . So, in 1406 YONGLE Emperor of MING CHINA sent him back to DAI VIET with a escort of five thousand army men . The MING army led by HUANG ZHONG was ambushed by the army of DAI VIET and suffered a crushing defeat . HUANG ZHONG fled back to CHINA , while TEAN THIEM BINH was captured and executed by HO QUY LY . The incident made YONGLE angry and decided to invade DAI VIET . He reportedly said , ‘If we don’t destroy them , what are army for’. YONGLE sent 250,000 MING troops under well trained and experienced Generals like ZHANG FU and MU SHENG to invade DAI VIET . The MING troops defeated Emperor HO QUY LY’S army in no time on 19th November 1406 AD . They captured the two capitals of DAI VIET in the RED RIVER DELTA and then the entire country . HO QUY LY and his son HO HAN THUONG were captured on 16th June 1407 AD . They were caged and brought as prisoners to NANJING, the Imperial capital of the MING DYNASTY. ZHANG FU , referring the request of 1100 elites of DAI VIET , wrote to the Emperor of the MING DYNASTY that DAI VIET be absorbed into the CHINESE state . As a result , DAI VIET was incorporated into the MING EMPIRE and as JIAOZHI province .
JIAOZHI PROVINCE AND ITS ADMINISTRATION
The provincial government of JIAOZHI included an administrative officer , a surveillance officer and a regional military Commissioner. LU YI was appointed as Military Commissioner and HUANG ZHONG as Vice-Commisssioner . HUANG FU was appointed as both – Provincial Administrator and Surveillance Commissioner . Apart from that the MING seized the grain reserves of 136 million piculs of rice of DAI VIET . Moreover , the province of JIAOZHI was further divided into fifteen prefectures , 41 subprefectures and 210 counties . Altogether 472 military and civil officers were appointed to govern over three million people of JIAOZHI by 1408 AD . The numbers of officer were increased up to 1000 by 1419 AD. The occupying army of MING in JIAOZHI was consisted of 87,000 regulars , scattered in 39 citadel and towns in the northern DAI VIET . In 1416 AD , a large number of CONFUCIAN schools , YIN YAN schools and medical schools were established by the MING DYNASTY in the JIAOZHI province . For local bureaucracy , modes of examinations were decided in 1411 AD . In 1419 AD , the CHINESE mourning rites and mourning leave were instituted among the officials of JIAOZHI in 1419 AD . A short of moral superiority of so called ‘civilized’ state had to be imposed over the ‘barbarian’ state of DAI VIET, as the CHINESE viewed the people of DAI VIET as barbarians . YONGLE also brought many students from DAI VIET to the National Institute at NANJING , the official capital of the MING DYNASTY . But the CHINESE destroyed many vernacular writings , historical books and classical texts. The CHINESE colonists rather encouraged the MING CONFUCIAN ideology , forced people to wear CHINESE style clothes and imposed bureaucratic and classical CHINESE studies.
ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION AND LABOUR CONTROL
The main goal of any sort of colonization is economic exploitation and labour control . MING goal in JIAOZHI was also labour control and economic exploitation . It began a harsh rule of of both — colonization and sinicization . In October 1407 AD , 7700 tradesmen and artisans from DAI VIET were sent to CHINA . In order to draw revenue from JIAOZHI , the MING DYNASTY revived commercial taxes offices , fishing tax offices , transport offices and salt tax offices . Gold-mining offices were established in 1408 AD to supervise extraction of taxes on gold . Private export of metal and aromatic products were banned in 1416 AD . Now transportation of valuable artifacts like gems , jade , gold pieces of art as well as craftsmen to CHINA started . YONGLE also extracted from JIAOZHI local specialities like tropical green feathers , gold , paints , fans , silk fabrics etc. A special types of sandalwood locally called as the SUMU and a type of bark, from which red dye was extracted, were taken to CHINA . Since the province of JIAOZHI was unable to provide enough rice to a large number of CHINESE troops deputed there , the MING DYNASTY was of the opinion that the CHINESE resources were being drained in JIAOZHI disproportionately to what they were getting as revenues from there .
LAM SON UPRISING OF DAI VIET
There were several revolts among the people of DAI VIET against the MING authorities . A few rebellions, about which attention might be paid, were as follows : 1. A REVOLT BY TRAN NGOI (1407 AD to 1409 AD) (A YOUNG SON OF LATE EMPEROR TRAN NGHE TONG) ; 2. A REVOLT BY TRAN QUY KHOANG (A NEPHEW OF LATE EMPEROR TRAN NGHE TONG) ; and 3. A REVOLT BY THE BUDDHIST MONKS INSPIRED BY VIETNAMESE NATIONALISM BETWEEN 1415 AD to 1424 AD . A total of 31 revolts occured between 1415 AD to 1524 AD against the MING rule over DAI VIET . But all these revolts were proved to be unsuccessful . The revolt which became successful was known as LAM SON UPRISING . It was a rebellion of the DAI VIET led by LE LOI in the province of JIAOZHI from 1418 AD to 1427 AD against the rule of MING DYNASTY over the country . There was a huge number of MING army (about 87,000) were scattered in 39 citadels and towns in northern areas of DAI VIET . On 7th February 1416 AD , a group of 18 men including LE LOI and NGUYEN TRAI gathered together to expel MING forces from DAI VIET . LE LOI , born in a land owning family and served as a senior-scholar official , denied to served under the MING regime , raised the revolt flag in 1418 AD against MING rule in LAM SON , THANH HOA . He claimed himself as BINH DINH VUONG ( Thd Prince of Pacification ) . He divided his army into small bands of partisan fighters . He used guerrilla tactics to fight against regular MING units . Thereafter , MING army , in February , under General MA JI attacked LAM SON . But it was ambushed by LAM SON partition near the CHU River . It was retaliated by LE LOI in surprise . Whereupon his mine-year-old daughter was taken as hostage and sent to YONGLE’S harem . MING DYNASTY , at first , crushed LE LOI rebellion , but in 1425 AD , MING Emperor ZHU ZHANJI expressed concerned, in view of growing number of rebellions and net financial losses , to restore TRAN DYNASTY again in DAI VIET by reestablishing tributary relationship system. In 1426 AD , ZHU ZHANJI proclaimed a general amnesty and abolished all taxes in JIAOZHI except for the land taxes . LE LOI, with the help of 3,000 rebels of DAI VIET, achieved a surprised victory over MING army led by WANG TONG . In the battle , about 30,000 MING soldiers were either killed or captured in TOT DONG . ZHU ZHANJI decided to end the war in the northern part of DAI VIET . After this final victory , LE LOI was declared as the King of DAI VIET/ANNAM . He repatriated 86,640 MING prisoners , mostly armymen , to CHINA after confiscating thier weapons . And CHINA had not invaded its southern neighbour for 360 years . And with mutual agreement , DAI VIET was declared as a tributary state of CHINA and LE LOI as its Emperor . In this way , the rule of indigenous LATER LE DYNASTY started in 1427 AD in DAI VIET .
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TO BE CONTINUED ……………