VIETNAM ( SERIES -36 )
HO DYNASTY OF DAI VIET
The HO Dynasty was a short-lived Dynasty of DAI VIET . It was established in 1400 AD and continued till 1407 AD . It was preceded by the TRAN Dynasty . The official religion of the HO Dynasty was BUDDISM quite influenced by the INDIAN BUDDHIST MONKS . However , people also followed TAOISM and CONFUCIANISM . The common language of DAI VIET , that time , was middle VIETNAMESE , officially written in CHU NOM . HO Dynasty was consisted of the reign of two monarchs namely : 1. HO QUY LY ( 1400 AD to 1401 AD ) ; and 2. HO HAN THUONG ( 1401 AD to 1406 AD ) . The latter was the second son of the former . HO NGUYEN TRUNG was the eldest son of Emperor HO QUY LY who played as the Dynasty’s Military General . The practices of bequeathing the throne to the designated son was quite similar to that of the TRAN Dynasty . The citadel of the HO Dynasty , also known as TAY DO castle or TAY GIAI castle was a marvelous monument of the 15th century . This stone fortress is located in THANH HOA and has been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Site . THANH HOA was the western capital of the HO Dynasty from 1398 AD to 1407 AD . It reminded as an important political , economic and cultural centre of DAI VIET from 16th to 18th century . The actual location of this fort is in TAY GIAI commune of the VINH LOC district of the province of THANH HOA . It has : 1. INNER CITADEL ; 2. LA THANH OUTER WALLED SECTION ; and 3. NAM GIAO ALTAR . The citadel was built in 1397 AD . Based on CONFUCIANISM mixed with BUDDHIST culture , the citadel is made up of limestone . It is said that the construction of the castle was built according to Fengshui principles .
EMPEROR HO QUY LY OF DAI VIET
As a founding Emperor of the HO Dynasty , HO QUY LY , ruled DAI VIET or DAI NGU from 1400 AD to 1401 AD . He rose as an official of the Royal Court of DAI VIET during the TRAN Dynasty . He then acted as a Military General and fought against the CHAM forces from 1367 AD to 1390 AD . After his military defeat in the MING conquest of DAI VIET (1406 AD to 1407 AD) , he and his son were captured as war prisoners . They were exiled to CHINA . And in this way , the DAI VIET Empire became the thirteen province of MING Empire . HO QUY LY was born in 1336 AD at DAI LA village of VINH NINH district . His father’s name was LE QUOC MAO and his mother’s name was lady PHAM . A descendant from a CHINESE family named HU , he adopted the surname of DAI VIET to appease the local elites . He got married with a princess of Emperor TRAN MINH TONG after passing out the Imperial examination . In 1375 AD , HO QUY LY got a high military rank using his royal contacts . In March 1387 AD , HO QUY LY was appointed as the chief minister by Emperor TRAN NGHE TONG . Slowly and gradually the anti-QUY LY faction started emerging in the royal court . So, he married his eldest daughter to Emperor TRAN THUAN TONG while continued placing his own men to the government . In 1398 AD , HO QUY LY manipulated Emperor TRAN THUAN TONG to abdicate the throne of DAI VIET and the two year old son of the latter , TRAN THIEU DE were appointed as Emperor of DAI VIET .
DAI VIET BECAME DAI NGU
In 1400 AD , HO QUY LY dethroned the last TRAN Emperor TRAN THIEU DE and established his clan rule in DAI VIET . Now he became the Emperor of the country . He renamed the Kingdom of DAI VIET as DAI NGU . Rebellions erupted in the Kingdom after he became Emperor . Encountering the failed coup by the TRAN , he suppressed the dissenters by executing 370 people . Their possessions were seized . Their female relatives were enslaved . Male members , irrespective of found guilty , were either buried alive or drowned . But in 1401 AD , Emperor HO QUY LY abdicated the throne in favor of his second son , HO HAN THUONG , who also was the grandson of Emperor TRAN MINH TONG . Following tradition of the TRAN DYNASTY , HO QUY LY became the Retired Emperor or Emperor Emeritus possessing much power of the state . Though Emperor HO HAN THUONG and the Retired Emperor HO QUY LY made three expeditions to CHAMPA from 1400 AD to 1403 AD . The first and the third expeditions ended with CHAMPA’S defensive victory . But in the second expedition , the king JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-V relinquished northern QUANG NGAI and southern QUANG NAM to DAI VIET . But in 1407 , he , with his Emperor son , was captured by MING forces of CHINA in a MING-DAI NGU war which ended with incorporation of DAI NGU in the MING Dynasty as the province of JIAOZHI . They were exiled to CHINA where he was forced to be enlisted as a common soldier . He with his son Emperor HO HAN THUONG and his grandson HO NHUE died in the CHINESE exile . His main contribution in DAI VIET/DAI NGU , however, remained to be the construction of a citadel in THANH HOA Province , about which I have already discussed above .
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