VIETNAM ( SERIES -29 )
TRAN DYNASTY OF DAI VIET
The TRAN DYNASTY of DAI VIET ruled over the country from 1225 AD to 1400 AD . The TRAN DYNASTY is also known as the HOUSE OF TRAN . The founder of this Dynasty was Emperor TRAN THAI TONG , the nephew of the Grand Chancellor TRAN THU DO . The TRAN DYNASTY defeated two MONGOL invasions in 1288 AD . And the last Emperor of this Dynasty was THIEU DE who was forced to abdicate the throne in 1400 AD at the age of five only by his maternal grand father HO QUY LY . The ancestor of the TRAN Clan , TRAN LY , migrated from the province of FIJIAN to DAI VIET in the early 12th century. He settled in the TUC MUC village and adopted a profession like fishing . Slowly and gradually he became a big land owner of that area . It was his grandson TRAN CANH or TRAN THAI TONG later established the TRAN DYNASTY in DAI VIET . From TRAN LY onwards , the TRAN Clan became related to the LY Clan by intermarriages . During the reign of Emperor LY CAO TONG , when trouble arose in DIAVIET , the crown prince LY SAM sought for refuge in the family of TRAN LY . Then crown prince LY SAM decided to marry with his beautiful daughter TRAN THI DUNG in 1209 AD . Moreover that , the TRAN Clan helped Emperor LY CAO TONG and LY SAM to restore the throne in THANG LONG . This resulted in the appointment of several members of the TRAN Clan on the high position in the royal court by Emperor LY CAO TONG . TO TRUNG TU ( Uncle of Emperor Tran Thai TONG) , TRAN TU KHANH and TRAN THURA ( who were Tran Ly sons ) were a few members of the TRAN Clan got place in the royal court . When the crown prince LY SAM was enthroned as LY HUE TONG as Emperor of DAI VIET in 1211 AD after the death of Emperor LY CAO TONG , number of the members of TRAN Clan in royal court increased many folds .
EMPEROR TRAN THAI TONG OF DAI VIET
TRAN THAI TONG or TRAN CANH or TRAN NHAT TONG was the first Emperor of TRAN DYNASTY . He reigned DAI VIET from 1226 AD to 1258 AD , altogether 33 years . Many things I have already written about Emperor TRAN THAI TONG in my earlier blog . So I don’t want to repeat all of them again . I view something new always attracted my viewers . Let me start with his era name . During his 33 years of reign , Emperor TRAN THAI TONG used three era names : 1. KIEN TRUNG ( 1225 AD to 1232 AD ) ; 2. THIEN UNG CHINH BINH ( 1232 AD to 1250 AD ) ; and 3. NGUYEN PHONG ( 1251 AD to 1258 AD ) . In the autumn of 1257 AD , MONGOL General URIYANGKHADAI addressed three letters to Emperor TRAN THAI TONG demanding passage through DAI VIET to southern CHINA in order to attack the SONG DYNASTY . When all the three successive envoys were imprisoned in the capital THANG LONG of DAI VIET by Emperor TRAN THAI TONG , angry URIYANGKHADAI invaded DAI VIET . Battle started between the MONGOL and DAI VIET . DAI VIET army used elephants in the battle . MONGOL ordered his troops to fire arrows at the elephants’ feet . The elephants turned in panic . It caused disorder in the DAI VIET army and which was virtually routed . The senior military leaders of DAI VIET anyhow escaped with the help of pre-prepared boats . But a part of their army was destroyed at NO NGUYEN on the HONG River . But the battle didn’t end over there . A day after , the remainder of the royal army of DAI VIET suffered a major defeat again in a fierce battle at the PHU LO bridge . This led the TRAN leaders to evacuate the capital THANG LONG leaving even their weapons behind the capital . However , due to the poor climate of DAI VIET , URIYANGKHADAI left THANG LONG after only nine days to invade the SONG DYNASTY . After the MONGOL departure from DAI VIET, Emperor TRAN THAI TONG agreed to pay tribute every three years to the royal court of the MONGOL Empire .
EMPEROR TRAN THAI TONG – A PROLIFIC WRITER
EMPEROR TRAN THAI TONG was a prolific writer . Learned in both — CONFUCIANISM and BUDDHISM , he authored several profound works on BUDDHISM . The most famous of them is known as KHOA HU LUC . It literally means ‘Instructions on Emptiness’. It was a ZEN manual . As a prodigious writer , he left behind a substantial number of works . However , today a small number of them survived . A peculiar feature of both the LY DYNASTY and the TRAN DYNASTY was that many men of DAI VIET were castrated themselves to become eunuchs that time . So a boy student was given money by Emperor TRAN THAI TONG in 1254 AD in exchange for becoming a eunuch . In 1258 AD he , however , abdicated the throne in favor of his son whose name was Crown Prince TRAN HOANG . After ceding his throne for his son TRAN HOANG , whose name as Emperor was TRAN THANH TONG , Emperor TRAN THAI TONG held the title of THAI THUONG HOANG , meaning by Retired Emperor . He remained so from 1279 AD uptil his death in 1290 AD .
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .
TO BE CONTINUED ………………
MERRY CHRISTMAS !