VIETNAM ( SERIES -14 )
DECLINING DYNASTIES OF CHAMPA
VIRBHADRAVARMAN was the King of CHAMPA from 1441 AD to 1444 AD . He was the grandson of a great King like JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-VI . But his grandmother Queen PARAMESVARI was a concubine of King JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-VI . He was also from VRSU DYNASTY of CHAMPA . He was the nephew of his predecessor King INDRAVARMAN-VI . His religion was HINDUISM . But much is not known about him . And he was succeeded by an unknown King probably called MAHA KALI. According to the VIETNAMESE Cronicles MAHA VIJAYA had usurped the throne from MAHA KALI . In 1444 AD , war broke out between CHAMPA and DAI VIET . And the King of DAI VIET , LE NHAN TONG sent a fleet from NGHE AN to the coast of BINH DINH . He ransacked the CHAM capital and captured MAHA VIJAYA in 1446 AD . MAHA VIJAYA was put behind the bars in HANOI . And his brother MAHA KALI , who was previously overthrown by MAHA VIJAYA , was installed again as a puppet King of CHAMPA . From 1446 AD to 1460 AD all most all monarchs were puppets . In 1460 AD , MAHA SAJAN took over the reign of CHAMPA . He ruled CHAMPA from 1460 AD to 1471 AD . His predecessor was MAHA SAYA . And 1471 AD was the year of the fall of CHAMPA . In a reaction to a CHAM raid against HOA CHAU, the Emperor of DAI VIET , LE THANH TONG invaded CHAMPA . VIETNAMESE captured the CHAM capital of VIJAYA . They butchered more than 60,000 people and imprisoned another 30,000 . PAN-LO TOU-TS’IUAN was captured . He became ill and died on junk taking him away . This was the final defeat of CHAMPA . Later it was divided into three principalities under the protection of DAI VIET .
INCESSANT WÀRS OF AGGRESSION IN CHAMPA
By the late fifteenth century , CHAMPA faced incessant wars of aggression which wiped out the CHAMPA Kingdom . One by one their provinces were annexed until CHAMPA was entirely absorbed in the seventeenth century . PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN was the Ruler of CHAMPA from 1780 AD to 1793 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN TA . He was born in BAL CANAR , PANDURANGA , CHAMPA . His predecessor was PO TISUNTIRAIDAPAGHOH . A descendant of PO SAKTIRAYDAPATIH , PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN was appointed the Ruler of CHAMPA with the title CAI CO by NYUYEN LORD . We all know that since 1771 AD , CHAMPA was victim of VIETNAMESE civil war . Thus the fate of CHAMPA was dependent on the outcome of the civil war between the TAY SON DYNASTY and the NYUYEN LORDS . PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN supported TAY SON rebels in 1782 AD . So , he was regarded as a traitor by NGUYEN ANH . In 1788 AD , NGUYEN ANH appointed PO KREI BREI and PO LADHUANPUGUH as co-ruĺer of CHAMPA . PO KREI BREI was a CHAMPA prince and a brother of PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN . In 1790 AD , NGUYEN ANH retook GIA DINH (PRESENTLY THE CITY OF HO CHI MINH) . At the same time we should also know that NGUYEN ANH was the founding Emperor of NGUYEN DYNASTY . It was the last Dynasty of VIETNAM . His Dynasty would rule the unified territories that constitutes modern day VIETNAM until 1945 AD . Anyway , PO KREI and PO LADHUANPUGUH when jointly were appointed co-ruĺer of CHAMPA by NGUYEN ANH , PO KREI BREI was a civilian governor with the title CHURONG CO , while PO LADHUANPUGUH was the military governor with title like CAI CO . Since then CHAMPA was regarded as province of VIETNAM rather than an independent country . In 1795 AD , however , PO KREI BREI was deposed and he with his family was forced to seek refuse in CAMBODIA .
THE PROVINCE CHAMPA OF VIETNAM
After PO KREI BREI was deposed , PO LADHUANPUGUH was promoted to CHUONG CO of CHAMPA . Now he was the sole ruler of CHAMPA . During his period a MALAY nobleman TUAN PHAOW revolted against the NGUYEN LORDS in 1796 AD . It was PO LADHUANPUGUH who helped NGUYEN LORDS to put down rebellion . In the following year , TUAN PHAOW was defeated and fled to KELANTAN . But PO LADHUANPUGUH died in 1799 AD . He was succeeded by PO SAONG NHUNG CENG who ruled CHAMPA from 1799 AD to 1822 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN CHAN . He joined the NGUYEN army in 1790 AD . He was appointed as the Viceroy or the Deputy Ruler of CHAMPA in 1794 AD . He was succeeded by PO KLAN THU in 1822 AD who ruled CHAMPA from 1822 AD to 1828 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN VINH . He was first appointed as a Viceroy in 1807 AD and then he succeeded to PO SAONG NHUNG CENG after his death in 1822 AD amid iñternal tussle between the VIETNAMESE Emperor MINH MANG and the VIETNAMESE General LE VAN DUYET for the next ruler of CHAMPA . He was succeeded by PO PHAOK THE who ruled CHAMPA from 1829 AD to 1832 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN THURA . He was appointed by the Viceroy of Southern VIETNAM , LE VAN DUYET without the permission of VIETNAMESE Emperor MINH MANG . PO PHAOK THE was granted the VIETNAMESE title like THUAN THANH TRAN KHAM SAI THONG BINH CAI CO . And PO DHAR KAOK was appointed as his Viceroy . During his reign CHAMPA ended its relationship with the HUE COÙRT OF VIETNAM . Instead they only sent tribute to LE VAN DUYET, the Viceroy of the southern VIETNAM or COCHINCHINA . But soon after the death of LE VAN DUYET in 1832 AD , Emperor MINH MANG of VIETNAM appointed new Viceroy of Southern VIETNAM and CHAMPA was annexed by VIETNAM . PO PHAOK THE and his Deputy PO DHAR KAOK were captured and brought to the HUE COÙRT where PÒ PHAOK THE was granted the VIETNAMESE title like DIEN AN BA first and then in 1835 AD , both — PO PHAOK THE and PO DHAR KAOK were executed by Emperor MINH MANG of VIETNAM . PO PHAOK THE was the last ruler of CHAMPA .
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .
TO BE CONTINUED ……………
3 thoughts on “THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-96”
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Great article on Champa ! Well researched! Thank you ☺️
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