VIETNAM ( SERIES -11 )
KING JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III OF CHAMPA
JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III was the King of CHAMPA from 1139 AD to 1145 AD . He was the adopted son of HARIVARMAN-V . Since he was heirless , so he abdicated the throne in 1129 AD . His adopted son , JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III , was nominated for crown prince of CHAMPA in 1133 AD . In 1139 AD , INDRAVARMAN-III ascended as the King of MANDALA CHAMPA . His religion was HINDUISM . Though much is not known about the King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III , yet it was the fact that he left elaboration in THAP MAM STYLE in BINH DINH , building temples and endorsements at MY SON sanctuaries in QUANG NAM in 1140 AD as such . Instead he made an eulogy for Lady PO YANG INO NAGAR at the PO NAGAR temple in NHA TRANG three years later . JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III refused to join KHMER EMPIRE’S meaningless and wasteful campaigns against DAI VIET as he had a peace deal with the former in 1136 AD as such . We should know that DAI VIET was in a vulnerable position due to its internal conflicts and series of wars with their neighbors . In 1127 AD , the twelve-years-old Crown Prince LY DURONG HOAN became the new ruler of DAI VIET . The King SURYAVARMAN-II of the KHMER demanded DAI VIET to pay tribute for the KHMER Empire . But VIETNAMESE refused to pay tribute to the KHMERS . So , SURYAVARMAN-II decided to expand his territory northward into VIETNAMESE territory . But after a failed attempt continuously to capture southern part of DAI VIET , SURYAVARMAN-II turned to invade CHAMPA in 1145 AD . He entered into the CHAM capital of VIJAYA . He ransacked the city . And destroyed the temples at MY SON . INDRAVARMAN-III disappeared amidst the chaos of war . But historian like GEORGES MASPERO , in his book THE CHAMPA KINGDOM , has anticipated that JAYA INDRAVARMAN-III was either killed or captured by the KHMER .
KING JAYA INDRAVARMAN-IV OF CHAMPA
From 1145 AD to 1167 AD , the Kingdom of CHAMPA appeared to have passed through weak Kings like RUDRAVARMAN-IV from 1145 AD to 1147 AD amid the ANKOR invasion of CHAMPA . But he never reigned. Similarly , from 1147/49 AD to 1162/67 AD , a CHAM noble JAYA HARIVARMAN-I spent much of his time to consolidate his control over CHAMPA during the 12th century KHMER-CHAM wars . He was succeeded by his son JAYA HARIVARMAN-II about whom no history is found . Then came the period of King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-IV of CHAMPA who ruled from 1167 AD to 1192 AD . He probably was the same person as the Ruler of PANDURANGA whose name was PO KLONG GARAI . As usurper of the reign of CHAMPA , he called himself as JAYA INDRAVARMAN on Vatu and he used to say that he had come from the ‘ famous place known by the name GRAMAPURAVIJAYA ‘. He was full of energy , courage and pride . He was well versed in all the SHASTRA . The SHASTRAS are all ancient INDIAN Literatures as such . He also sent tributes to the court of the SONG DYNASTY of CHINA and even the DAI VIET . But he was unsuccessful in purchasing horses from CHINA for an overland invasion . So , he prepared a squadron of water vessels . He invaded KHMER Empire in 1177 AD . His naval forces traveled upto MEKONG and TONLE SAP rivers and sacked ANKOR and killed TRIBHUVANADITYAVARMAN . King TRIBHUVANADITYAVARMAN was the Ruler of the KHMER Empire who ruled from 1166 AD to 1177 AD . He was a MANDARIN who around 1165 AD overthrew YASOVARMAN-II by assassinating him and proclaimed himself às the King of CAMBODIA . So , King JAYA INDRAVARMAN-IV entered the KHMER capital in 1177 AD and got rid of the country by usurper by killing the then King . He died in 1192 AĎ . His name JAYA in SANSKRIT means VICTORIOUS and INDRA means POSSESSING DROPS OF RAIN . INDRA was a HINDU mythological WARRIOR GOD .
KING JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II OF CHAMPA
JAYA JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II was the King of CHAMPA from 1220 AD to 1254 AD . He was the grandson of JAYA HARIVARMAN-I . But he was raised in the court of JAYAVARMAN-VII . JAYAVARMAN-VII was the King of KHMER Empire and he was considered as the most powerful Monarch of KHMER Empire by the historians . And he was the first King devoted to Buddhism . He ruled from 1181 AD to 1218 AD as such . Anyway , JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II attained the rank of YUVARAJA ( PRINCE ) in 1201 AD . He led the KHMER Empire’s attack on DAI VIET in 1207 AD . But when KHMER voluntarily evacuated CHAMPA in 1220 AD , Prince ANGSARAJA , in a coronation ceremony in 1226 AD at the city of VIJAYA in CHAMPA , declared himself as the King of CHAMPA with his regnal name of King JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-II . As a king of CHAMPA , he restored irrigation works , ruins and LINGAS . He also donated numerous rice fields and slaves of different countries like that of CAMBODIA , CHAMPA , CHINA , SIAM and PAGAN to the temple of PO NAGAR at NHA TRANG . In 1234 AD , he got it installed an image of SVAYAMUTPANNA in PHAN RANG . He also offered war prisoners and trophies to the God of SRIPATISVARA at the sanctuary of SVAYAMUTPANNA . These donations included nine captured KHMER , twenty two SIAMESE , one PAGANESE and a KHMER male elephant . However , CHAMPA’S non-stop territorial growth in 1252 AD made the VIETNAMESE King TRAN THAI TONG irritated enough to retaliate . So , he attacked CHAMPA and captured JAYA PARMESVARAVARMAN-I’S concubine named as BO LA GIA and took other prisoners as well . And a historian like GEORGES MASPERO in his book THE CHAMPA KINGDOM has vividly described all that .
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