VIETNAM ( SERIES -6 )
KING VIKRANTAVARMAN- III OF CHAMPA
VIKRANTAVARMAN- III was the King of CHAMPA who reigned from 817 AD to 854 AD . He was first appointed as Prince of PANDURANGA in 813 AD by his father King HARIVARMAN-I . He was a SAIVITE . He performed rituals and presented gifts like rice fields dedicating for the temple of SIVA/SHIVA . He worshiped LORD SIVA under the names of VIKRANTARUDRESVARA and VIKRANDEVADHIBHADRESVARA in the temple of PO NAGAR . He also used to praised his ancestors . His Inscriptions are too short to dig out more about him . An Inscription found in BAKUL , NINH THUAN of 829 AD described about how he built shrines of LORD SIVA and LORD BUDDHA . But from 854 AD onwards suddenly all the southern Inscriptions of VIKRANTAVARMAN-III had vanished away for unknown reasons . History of CHAMPA could not ascertained the facts from 854 AD to 875 AD , as no material is found of during the period on the subject . There was a 20 years of gap between the above mentioned period . It might be possible that the southern CHAMPA might have again come under the direct control of CHINESE Rulers as such . But this is only based on inference and no historical sources/proofs are there to ascertain the fact . But again we have information that in 875 AD , a BUDDHIST King whose personal name was LAKSMINDRA BHUMICVARA GRAMASVAMIN became the King of CHAMPA . But as King of CHAMPA , his name was INDRAVARMAN-II .
KING INDRAVARMAN-II OF CHAMPA
INDRAVARMAN-II was the King of CHAMPA from 875 AD to 893 AD . He was the founder of CHAMPA’S sixth Dynasty . Relations between CHAMPA and CHINA was again restored during his regime . In the CHINESE annals and by the CHINESE historians , CHAMPA was referred as CHANG-CHENG or the city of CHAM in its SANSKRIT form . He founded the new capital of CHAMPA called INDRAPURA . INDRAPURA is located in modern day QUANG NAM province . He used to called himself as the master of Meditation . As he had been enlightened by many years of meditation as such . He was neither from any noble family nor from any past Dynasty . He was a MAHAYANA BUDDHIST . He authorized the construction of a MAHAYANA BUDDHIST MONASTERY in INDRAPURA ( DONG DOUNG ) in the southeast of MY SON . He built there a temple of LAKSHMINDRALOKECVARA . When the local elites shaw a royal cult consecrating to AVALOKITESVARA , they started promoting it . But in 889 AD , the KHMER Ruler YASOVARMAN-I invaded CHAMPA . YASOVARMAN was an ANKORIAN ( CAMBODIA ) king who ruled from 889 AD to 910 AD and was famous as LEPER KING because as per CAMBODIAN legend , King YASOVARMAN-I had leprosy . Despite the fact that King INDRAVARMAN-II was a MAHAYANA BUDDHIST, he repelled YASOVARMAN-I from CHAMPA as such .
KING JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-I OF CHAMPA
JAYA SIMHAVARMAN was the nephew of King INDRAVARMAN-II who became the King of MANDALA CHAMPA in 897 AD and ruled till his death in 904 AD . King SIMHAVARMAN was man of development . Many building projects were carried out during his reign . A MAHAYANA MONASTERY dedicated to AVALOKITESVARA was built in 902 AD in QUANG NAM . The name of the MONASTERY was VIHARA PRAMUDITALOKESVARA . A silver icon for AVALOKITESVARA had been enshrined during his regime in three city of VRDDHA RATNAPURA ( PRESENT DAY QUANG BINH ) . Three statues of PRAJNAPARAMITA and two of AVALOKITESVARA had been recovered there . Constructions of MY SON A12 , A13 , B2 and E4 were done during his period . Syncretic SAIVAISM-BUDDHISM had been developed in this context . There associated BUDDHA and BODHISATTVAS , presided over by SIVA as the supreme protector , had been shown as the saviors in that religious system . The architectural influence from JAVA could also be seen in CHAMPA’S architectural development as such . It could be associated to PO KLUNG PILIH RAJADVARA , a CHAM nobleman and relative of SIMHAVARMAN’S wife , who went on BUDDHIST pilgrimage to JAVA in 908 AD and 911 AD acting as King’s diplomat, was influenced by the JAVANESE architectures . So , when he came hack to CHAMPA in 911 AD , built MAHAYANA temple named after his mother as VIDDHAKESVARA . JAYA SIMHAVARMAN was succeeded by his son SAKTIVARMAN in 904 AD for a brief period of time . He was then followed by BHADRAVARMAN II .
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .
TO BE CONTINUED ………………
3 thoughts on “THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-88”
Another valuable installment of your history of Vietnamese civilization. Thanks a lot for sharing 🙏
I found these photos really gorgeous
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