VIETNAM ( SERIES -3 )
THE HISTORY OF THE PEOPLE OF CHAMPA
During the SA HUYNH Culture between 1000 BC to 200 AD , the people of CHAMPA descended from seafaring settlers who reached the South-East ASIAN mainland from BORNEO . They were predecessors of the CHAMPA Kingdom . To many historians , CHAM people were most closely to ACEHNESE in northern SUMATRA . Their language called CHAM language was originated from AUSTRONESIAN family of languages . The SA HUYNH Culture was a AUSTRONESIAN seafaring culture of Central VIETNAM coastal region . Archeologists unanimously are of the opinion that the ancestors of CHAMPA people were the AUSTRONESIAN CHAM and CHAMIC speaking people . To the HAN CHINESE , the country of CHAMPA was known as LINY . It was founded in 192 AD . Since the fourth century AD , CHAM Polities had started to absorve much of INDIC influences . It was probably through its neighbor , FUNAN as such . With the establishment of HINDUISM in CHAMPA , people there created stones Inscriptions in the SANSKRIT language and red-brick HINDU Temples had started erecting there also . Such SANSKRIT Inscriptions described BHADRAVARMAN as the first king of CHAMPA who reigned from 380 AD to 413 AD . The King BHADRAVARMAN established a LINGA called BHADRESVARA at a place called MY SON . MY SON is a cluster of partially ruined HINDU temple in central VIETNAM constructed between the 4th century AD to 14th century AD by the Kings of CHAMPA . BHADRESVARA was a temple of the HINDU God LORD SHIVA . BHADRESVARA was combination of the King’s own name and the name of the HINDU God LORD SHIVA worship of which continued throughout the centuries that followed .
THE PEACEFUL ACCEPTANCE OF HINDUISM BY CHAM PEOPLE
King GANGARAJA , the founder of SIMHAPURA Dynasty of CHAMPA , who ruled CHAMPA for a very short period starting from 413 AD onwards and then abdicated the throne . He came to INDIA on pilgrimage along the river GANGES in the Northeast INDIA . To King GANGARAJA , the GANGES gives birth to great joy . It was due to his long trips to INDIA that CHAMPA was plunged into civil war and his nephew MANORATHAVARMAN succeeded him . A 20th century FRENCH scholar of South-East ASIAN Archeology and history , GEORGE COEDES ( 1886 to 1969 ) is of the opinion that during the 2nd and 3rd century , an influx of the INDIAN traders , priests and scholars traveled to the South-East ASIAN subcontinent through sea route and made communications with the local CHAM people of the coast of Central VIETNAM . Their roles in disseminating INDIAN Culture and BUDDHISM in CHAMPA were total . On the other hand , according to an another FRENCH writer like PAUL MUS ( 1902 to 1969 ) , whose studies centred around South-East ASIAN culture and VIETNAM , the peaceful acceptance of HINDUISM by the CHAM elite were likely relating to the tropical monsoon climate background shared by the areas like the WAY OF BENGAL and MYANMAR upto VIETNAM . Monsoon society/countries/regions generally used to practice animism , most importantly , the creed of the earth spirit . Moreover , for the South-East ASIAN people , HINDUISM was somewhat similar to their original beliefs and the way of life . Such beliefs made it easy in their conversations to HINDUISM and BUDDHISM peacefully without any resistance or with little resistance as such .
KING RUDRAVARMAN-I OF CHAMPA
A descendant of King GANGARAJA through maternal side , RUDRAVARMAN-I ( 529 AD to 572 AD ) became the King of CHAMPA in 529 AD . His father was a BRAHMIN , while his mother was a niece of King MANORATHAVARMAN . In 1930 AD , he was enfeoffed with title King of LYNYI WANG , Commissioner with special power , Commander-in-chief of all Military Affairs of the coastal region and General of Pacification of the South by the CHINESE LIANG Dynasty . The LIANG Dynasty was an Imperial Dynasty of CHINA known as the southern LIANG . In 541 AD , he was said to have invaded JIUDE province of CHINA . PHAM TU , a General of LY BON ( LY BON WAS FOUNDER OF THE EARLY LY DYNASTY OF VIETNAM FROM 544 AD TO 548 AD ) , defeated RUDRAVARMAN-I in 544 AD . However , an AMERICAN historian like MICHAEL THEODORE VICKERY ( 1931-2017 ) in his book the HISTORY OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA has written by speculating that PHAM TU might be a LYNYI subject who then fled to the north and joined with LY BON . Anyway , King RUDRAVARMAN-I was a mighty king but during hid period , the temple complex of BHADRESVARA was destroyed by a great fire in 535/536 AD and it was not reconstructed during his regime . But it was reconstructed by his son SHAMBHUVARMAN who succeeded him in 572 AD . And as per tradition he renamed the temple as SHAMBHUBHUDRESHVARA by including his name with the LORD BHADRESVARA as such .
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