VIETNAM ( SERIES -2 )
CHAMPA KINGDOM OF VIETNAM
CHAMPA were a collection of independent CHAM polities . It extended across the coastal areas of Central and Southern VIETNAM from 2nd BC to 1832 AD . After that , it was annexed by the VIETNAMESE Empire under the Emperor MING MANG . The Kingdom was variously known as NAGARACAMPA in the SANSKRIT language ; CHAMPA in the modern CHAM and as per KHMER Inscriptions ; CHIEM THANH in the SINO-VIETNAMESE vocabulary ; and ZHANCHENG in the CHINESE records . Today a part of LAOS , VIETNAM and CAMBODIA . Established in 192 AD and annexed by VIETNAM under NGUYEN Dynasty in 1832 AD . During such a vast span of time , its capital varied from place to place . As from 605 AD to 757 AD , its capital was SIMHAPURA ; from 757 AD to 875 AD to VIRAPURA ; from 875 AD to 982 AD to INDRAPURA ; from 982 AD to 1471 AD to VIJAYA ; from 757 AD to 1653 AD to KAUTHARA POLITY ; and from 1471 AD to 1832 AD to PANDURANGA POLITY . The languages used by the people of CHAMPA were old CHAM and SANSKRIT. Apart from a few folk religions , BUDDHISM and HINDUISM were the dominant religion of the CHAMA Kingdom . The early CHAMPA evolved from local seafaring AUSTRONESIAN CHAMIC SA HUYNH Culture of the coast of modern-day VIETNAM . It had profound and direct impacts on the history of VIETNAM and South-East ASIA as the people of CHAMPA had established and maintained a vast system of lucrative trade networks across the region connecting the INDIAN Ocean and Eastern ASIA until the seventeenth century . According to historians on the subject , the first and oldest native South-East ASIAN language Literatures were written down around 350 AD predating the first KHMER , MON and MALAY Texts by centuries .
LEGENDARY CHAM GODDESS LADY PO NAGAR
According to CHAM folk legends , CHAMPA was founded by LADY PO NAGAR , the divine mother Goddess of the Kingdom . She arrived from the Moon in the central VIETNAM and found the Kingdom of CHAMPA . But , as per legend , a typhoon drifted her away and left her stranded on the coast of CHINA . She married a CHINESE Prince there and returned to CHAMPA . According to the myth of LADY PO NAGAR , she was born from the clouds of the sky and the foam of the sea . CHAM people were her offshoots . Her physical form was manifested in the piece of Englewood floating on the waves of the Ocean . She is said to have ninety-seven husbands and thirty-nine daughters who later on became Goddess like their mother . PO NAGAR was the Goddess who created the Earth , Englewood and Rice . Legends also say that even the aroma of rice could be felt around her . The CHAM people looked upon her as the Goddess of plants and trees . Moreover , she was considered as the nurturing Goddess like the Earth and she used to give blessings to her followers . In the coastal city of NHA TRANG and the capital of the KHANH HOA PROVINCE of the South Central VIETNAM , the PO NAGAR Temple was built in the eighth century . It was again built in the eleventh century . Her portrayal image in the Temple is said to have been of the time of 965 AD . She was shown seated cross-legged upon a throne . She had also been worshiped by the VIETNAMESE people since eleventh century during the LY Dynasty period .
THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE CHAMPA PEOPLE
The CHAM people have their own written records in the form of book called the SAKKARAI DAK RAI PATAO . It has 5227 pages documenting the CHAM history ranging from 11th century AD to the deposition of PO THAK THE , the last king of PANDURANGA in 1832 AD . It has described about 39 Rulers of the CHAMPA Kingdom . It was written in the old CHAM script with collection of CHAM and VIETNAMESE seals imprinted by the VIETNAMESE Rulers . Until PO DHARMA , a VIETNAMESE activist and a CHAM CULTURAL historian ( 9th October 1948 to 22nd February 2019 ) , this book was dismissed for long by the scholars. He was born in CHAT THURONG village of NINH PHUROC District of the NINH THUAN Province . He was one of the leaders of the FULRO (THE UNITED FRONT FOR THE LIBERATION OF OPPRESSED RACES) during the VIETNAMESE WAR . He got injured in the battlefield of KAMPONG CHAM against the North VIETNAMESE Communist forces . Later on he quit his military career and went to FRANCE . He got Bachelor’s degree in 1978 , Master degree in 1980 and Ph.D in 1986 mainly on CHAMPA history and CHAMPA culture . Though PO DHARMA’S family was not allowed to return to VIETNAM , yet he realized the importance of his own VIETNAMESE culture and the history of its people . And due to his efforts the book called SAKKARAI DAK RAI PATAO got a place among the VIETNAMESE people and VIETNAMESE society . CHAM literatures have been preserved in approximately more than three thousands CHAM Manuscripts and books dating back from 16th century to 20th century . Our readers would be pleased to know that the South-East ASIA Digital Library at the NORTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY has more than 977 digitized CHAM Manuscripts as such .
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NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .
TO BE CONTINUED …………….