VIETNAM ( SERIES -1 )
THE HOABINHIAN PEOPLE OF VIETNAM
About 20,000 years ago , the first human race arrived and settled there in VIETNAM was the HOABINHIANS who could be considered as similar to that of the anthropological race called NEGRITOS . The remains of two HOMININS ( humans and chimpanzees mixed ) , a term first used by CAMILLE ARAMBOURG , a FRENCH vertebrate paleontologist , in 1948 , related to the SINANTHROPUS ( HOMO ERECTUS ) were of a half a million years ago of PLEISTOCENE era . Pre-historic VIETNAMESE were one of the world’s first people who had started farming and worked in agriculture . The RED RIVER , also known as HONG RIVER in VIETNAM is a 1,149 KM long river . It flows from YUNNAN in southwest CHINA through Northern VIETNAM to the Gulf of TONKIN formed a natural geographical areas having quite alluvial soil best for agriculture . Approximately in 2879 BC , the creation of the first legendary VIETNAMESE states were needed for the management of RED RIVER hydraulic system ; so that agriculture could be given a boost in the areas . Similarly , it was needed for trade exchange of mainly agricultural products and to prevent the flood so that agriculture could be protected from it . To archeologists , the VIETNAMESE DONG SONG culture traced back to about 700 BC in the Northern VIETNAM , GUANGXI and LAOS . As a result in the North , the DONGSONIAN culture with its indigenous chiefdoms of VAN LANG and AU LAC flourished by 500 BC . DONG SONG was a village in THANH HOA , VIETNAM having a BRONZE AGE culture in the ancient VIETNAM , located around the deltas of RED RIVER valley of Northern VIETNAM from 1009 BC to 1st century AD . The VIETNAMESE historians attribute this culture to the states of VAN LANG and AU LAC which later on spread to other parts of South-East ASIA . Similarly , in the central VIETNAM , the SA HUYNH culture of AUSTRONESIAN CHAMIC people also thrived .
THE HAN CONQUEST OF NANYUE
The HAN conquest of NANYUE was a military conflict between the HAN Empire , the Imperial Dynasty of CHINA from 202 BC to 9 AD and again from 25 AD to 220 AD , and NANYUE Kingdom in modern GUANGDONG , GUANGXI and Northern VIETNAM . During the reign of Emperor WU of the HAN DYNASTY of CHINA , the HAN forces launched a punitive campaign against NANYUE and conquered it in 111 BC . The causes of the southward expansion of the HAN DYNASTY could better be seen from this background . That in 196 BC , the Emperor GAOZU sent LU JIA on a diplomatic mission to NANYUE to officially recognize ZHAO TUO as a local leader . ( LU JIA was a CHINESE Philosopher and Politician of the western HAN DYNASTY . The BOOK OF HAN credits him with having converted the HAN DYNASTY founder LIU BANG to CONFUCIANISM ). However , the relation between HAN and NANYUE occasionally became strained as NANYUE King ZHAO TUO resented Emperor GAOZU’S consort Empress LU’S ban on the exports of metal wares and female livestock to NANYUE . In 183 BC , he proclaimed himself the ‘MARTIAL EMPEROR OF THE SOUTHERN YUE’ . It implied that he had a perceived status on equal footing with the CHINESE HAN Emperor . Moreover , about two years later King ZHAO TUO attacked the CHANGSHA Kingdom which was a constituent Kingdom of the HAN Empire . That’s why LU JIA came to NANYUE on a diplomatic mission to negotiate with the local King ZHAO TUO . During negotiations , he succeeded in convincing ZHAO TUO to give up his title as Emperor and pay homage to HAN as a nominal Vassal . When in 135 BC , King ZHAO MO of NANYUE asked for the help from the HAN Emperor as the forces of the MINYUE Kingdom of Southern CHINA attacked on NANYUE , the HAN Emperor responded quickly despite the fact that the NANYUE Kingdom neglected to pay regular homage to the HAN court . The Queen DOWAGER , who was of the CHINESE origin and had married to the then NANYUE’S King ZHAO YINGGI , when suggested incorporation of the Kingdom of NANYUE as a Kingdom of suzerainty of the HAN Empire making it as a constituent unit of the HAN Empire , LU JIA with other officials of NANYUE Kingdom opposed the proposal vehemently . This led to a violent retaliation against the Queen and Queen DOWAGER was executed . This led to mobilization of a large HAN naval forces into NANYUE . The HAN forces comprised of six armies under General LU BODE and General YANG PU in 111 BC advanced towards PANYU which resulted to the surrender of NANYUE .
THE FIRST ERA OF NORTHERN (CHINESE) DOMINATION AND THE FORMATION OF THE INDIANISED KINGDOM OF CHAMPA
After the conquest of NANYUE in 111 BC , the HAN Emperor established nine new COMMANDERIES ( a historical administrative division of CHINA ) to administer the former NANYUE territories . HAN further expanded control over southwards by military means and by the conquest . It helped HAN in its overseas trade with the various polities in the South-East ASIA and around the INDIAN Ocean . But in 40 AD , the HAN authority in the area was challenged . The TRUNG SISTERS led the first uprising of indigenous tribes and native people against the CHINESE domination in 40 AD . The TRUNG SISTERS were two VIETNAMESE ladies military leaders who ruled for three years after rebelling against the first CHINESE domination of VIETNAM . They are still regarded as the national heroines of VIETNAM . Their actual names were : 1. TRUNG TRAC ; and 2. TRUNG NHJ . TRUNG TRAC was , thus , considered as the first woman to be a VIETNAMESE Monarch as well as the only QUEEN REGNANT in the history of VIETNAM . And she was accorded the title of QUEEN TRUNG by VIETNAMESE people . Their rebellion was , however , defeated after sometime , but as the HAN DYNASTY in CHINA started to decline in the late 2nd century , the indigenous people of VIETNAM rose again and some of them became free . In 192 AD , the CHAM of Central VIETNAM revolted against the CHINESE and subsequently formed the CHAMPA Kingdom . In the 2nd century AD , HINDUISM and BUDDHISM entered into the VIETNAMESE society which saw the influences of the INDIAN Cultures over the VIETNAMESE people . As a result , the first INDIANISED Kingdom of CHAMPA and FUNAN came into existence in VIETNAM .
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