At the time of independence of INDONESIA in 1945 , the DUTCH retained the WEST IRIAN ( WESTERN PART OF NEW GUINEA ) . On 1st December 1961 , DUTCH freed the WEST IRIAN as self-governing independent state . When the negotiations between INDONESIA and NETHERLANDS regarding incorporation of territory of WEST IRIAN to INDONESIA completely failed , an INDONESIAN Paratrooper invaded the WEST IRIAN resulting in armed clashes between INDONESIAN and DUTCH troops in 1961 and 1962 . Under the pressure of the US , the NETHERLANDS had secret talks with INDONESIA which in August 1962 produced the NEW YORK AGREEMENT . And as per the agreement , INDONESIA assumed the administrative responsibility of WEST IRIAN on 1st May 1963 . The INDONESIAN government under SUHARTO rejected UN supervision of the referendum as agreed upon during SUKARNO’S Presidency under an ACT OF FREE CHOICE. It was conducted in 1969 in which 1025 PAPUAN representatives of local councils were selected by the INDONESIANS . These representatives were warned not to vote for independence of the WEST IRIAN but for integration of the WEST IRIAN with INDONESIA . And subsequently , the UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY resolution confirmed the WEST IRIAN sovereignty to INDONESIA . In 1973 , the WEST IRIAN was renamed as IRIAN JAYA . However , the Local PAPUA opposing such integration with INDONESIA started guerrilla activities in the following years .


The CARNATION REVOLUTION was a military Coup of the leftwing military officers in LISBON , PORTUGAL to overthrow the authoritarian ESTADO NOVO REGIME on 25th April 1974 . It resulted in the establishment of democracy in PORTUGAL . It also put full stop on the PORTUGUESE COLONIAL WAR . As a result in 1975 , the PORTUGUESE authorities announced decolonization of PORTUGUESE TIMOR . The western half of the TIMOR island was already a part of the INDONESIAN province of EAST NUSA TENGGARA . And the elections in the EAST TIMOR , following its independence from the PORTUGUESE rule , were held in 1975 . A leftwing party , FRETILIN with UDT ( TIMORESE DEMOCRATIC UNION ) , a conservative party of the EAST TIMOR established on 11th May 1974 emerged in the elections as the largest party , while APODETI ( TIMORESE POPULAR DEMOCRATIC ASSOCIATION ) , a party advocating integration with INDONESIA , enjoyed little popular support . Since FRETILIN was a party of Communists leaning and was in the power in the EAST TIMOR , INDONESIAN authorities feared that an independent EAST TIMOR would influence separatism in the archipelago . The INDONESIAN Military Intelligence tried to have break up between the two parties of EAST TIMOR i.e FRETILIN and UDT . It led to Coup by UDT on 11th August 1975 which led to month long Civil War in EAST TIMOR . The PORTUGUESE government didn’t assume the decolonisation process . But FRETILIN unilaterally declared the independence of EAST TIMOR . It proclaimed the DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF EAST TIMOR . However , nine days later on 7th December 1975 , INDONESIA invaded EAST TIMOR . With tacit support of the US , AUSTRALIA and the UNITED KINGDOM , who regarded INDONESIA as anti-communist ally , annexed the tiny country of EAST TIMOR having population of only 680,000 people by that time . After resignation of President SUHARTO in 1998 , the people of EAST TIMOR voted overwhelmingly for independence under the UN-SPONSORED REFERENDUM on 30th August 1999 . 99%of the population participated in the Referendum . Out of that three quarter voted for independence of EAST TIMOR . Following the result of the Referendum , the the INDONESIAN military and its militia started retaliating by killing more than 2000 EAST TIMORESE . They also started looting properties , raping women and girls , destroying much of its infrastructure and displacing two-third of its population . However , the INDONESIAN parliament (MPR) revoked the decree that annexed EAST TIMOR . Then the UN TRANSITIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN EAST TIMOR (UNTAET) assumed the responsibility of the governance of EAST TIMOR until it became officially an independent state in May 2002 .


The INDONESIAN TRANSMIGRATION PROGRAM was an initiative of the DUTCH colonial government which was later continued by the independent INDONESIAN government . The program was meant for moving landless people from densely populated areas of INDONESIA to less populous areas of the country . This program involved moving of people from the island of JAVA , to some extent from BALI and MADURA to less densely populated areas of KALIMANTAN , SUMATRA , SULAWESI , MALUKU and PAPUA . And the program was being co-ordinated by the MINISTERY OF VILLAGES , the government of INDONESIA. However , the program was deemed as controversial as fear among the native population was that of JAVANIZATION and ISLAMIZATION of the region might strengthen separatist movement and communal violence in INDONESIA as such . However , purpose of this program , according to the government , was to reduce poverty and overpopulation of JAVA . The program was first initiated by the DUTCH Colonial government in the early nineteenth century to reduce crowding and to provide workforce for plantations on SUMATRA . In 1929 , more than 260,000 contract workers were brought in the East coast of SUMATRA . Out of 260,000 , 235,000 workers were from JAVA . First they came as coolie . If a worker wanted to desert early from the company , which had brought them , he was punished with hard labour . Thus , the mortality rate among workers were quite high . After independence , during the SUKARNO’S Presidency , this program continued and expanded upto PAPUA . Between 1979 to 1984 , during SUHARTO period more than 2.5 million people moved under this program from one place to another .

The Yogini – A Bride in need



Published by arbind kumar

I had been a researcher. Presently in service.


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