THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-78

INDONESIA ( SERIES -11 )

THE THIRTIETH SEPTEMBER MOVEMENT G3OS

SUKARNO anti-imperialist ideology saw him leaning more towards USSR and CHINA . That’s why he was described as the GREAT DALANG ( PUPPET MASTER ) . Now most of his times were spent on balancing the increasingly hostile forces of the army and the third largest Communist Party of the world by now after USSR and CHINA , the PKI , penetrating almost all levels of the government and organizations in INDONESIA . On 30th September 1965 , in an attempted Coup d’etat against the SUKARNO’S government , six of the senior most generals of the army within the military and other officers were assassinated . This is known as the 30 SEPTEMBER MOVEMENT ( G30S ) in the INDONESIAN history . GESTAPU was a self- proclaimed organization of the INDONESIAN NATIONAL ARMED FORCES members , who in the early hours of 1st October 1965 , assassinated six INDONESIAN Army Generals in an abortive Coup d’etat . Though it should be called as 1st October Movement as it occurred at an early hours of that day , yet in the official circle it is termed as the THIRTIETH SEPTEMBER MOVEMENT ( G30S ) . In the the morning of 1st October 1965 , GESTAPU declared that Media and Communication outlets were in their control . The organization , later , declared that President SUKARNO was also under his protection . But in the end of the day news spread all over INDONESIA that the Coup d’etat attempt had failed in JAKARTA . In the central JAVA , there were an attempt to take control over an army division . Several cities were also said to have been controlled by this organization . By that time the rebellion was put down , two officers were also found dead . Most of the Socio-political-religious groups of INDONESIA including the INDONESIAN army blamed the Coup d’etat attempt on the COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDONESIA ( PKI ) . The movement was generally referred by the media and even government agencies as ‘ G30S/PKI ‘. The suspected members of the COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDONESIA in an aftermath purging drive were imprisoned and killed . And the sympathizers of the movement were heavily dealt with . The AMERICAN spying agency CIA initially believed that SUKARNO oschrated the movement . But the fact was that by 1965 , the INDONESIAN army had a sharp division between left-wing faction allied with the PKI and a right-wing faction influenced by the USA .

GENERAL SUHARTO AND THE NEW ORDER

In a violent Anti-Commmunist purge through out the country , PKI was virtually destroyed . As per a widely accepted estimates , between 500,000 to 1 millon people were killed . As violence was mostly brutal in JAVA and BALI , so ateast more than millions of leaders of PKI were imprisoned . President SUKARNO was trying to restore his position throughout 1965 to 1966 , but his GUIDED DEMOCRACY balancing act was destroyed with the demise of the PKI . Although he remained President of INDONESIA till 1967 , yet the weakened SUKARNO was compelled to transfer key political and military power to GENERAL SUHARTO who by then was head of the armed forces . In March 1967 , the PROVISIONAL PEOPLE’S CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY ( MPRS ) appointed GENERAL SUHARTO as acting President of INDONESIA . After one year in March 1968 , SUHARTO was formally appointed as President . And SUKARNO lived under virtual house arrest until his death due to kidney failure in 1970 . Now an era of the NEW ORDER has come in INDONESIA . SUHARTO’S administration is commonly called as the NEW ORDER era in the INDONESIAN history . Before enriching himself and his family members through business dealing and widespread corruption , he invited major foreign investments which produced substantial economic growth of INDONESIA .

SUHARTO – A BRIEF LIFE SKETCH

SUHARTO was an INDONESIAN army officer who served as the second and longest serving president of INDONESIA . His 31 years rule was the best example of an authotarian dictatorship ìn the world history . Two things : 1. THE LEGACY OF HIS 31 YEARS OF RULE ; 2. HIS US$38 BILLION NET WORTH is still a debatable question among historians the world over . SUHARTO was born in the small village of KEMUSUK near the city of YOGYAKARTA during the DUTCH colonial era on 8th June 1921 . He grew up in very humble circumstances . After his birth , his JAVANESE Muslim parents got divorce . So he was brought up by his foster parents . He spent much of his childhood with them . He was married in 1947 with SITI HARTINAH who died in 1996 . He had six children . TUTUT SUHARTO was his eldest daughter who later became INDONESIAN politician . And TOMMY SUHARTO , his son , was an important INDONESIAN businessman . During INDONESIA’S INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE he joined the newly formed INDONESIAN army . He rose to the rank of Major General after INDONESIA was a fully independent country . SUHARTO led troops had countered the 30th SEPTEMBER MOVEMENT . He also led nationwide Anti-Commmunist purge killing/imprisoned of millions of people . And after he became President of INDONESIA in 1968 , he mounted a social campaign known as DE-SUKARNOIZATION just to reduce the influence of the former President SUKARNO . Throughout 1970s and 1980s , SUHARTO’S Presidency saw two things : 1. NEW ORDER’S INCREASING AUTHORITARIANISM ; and 2. WIDESPREAD CORRUPTION . Following the 1997 ASIAN FINANCIAL CRISIS leading to widespread unrest in INDONESIA , he resigned on May 1998 as the President of the country . SUHARTO died on 27th January 2008 at the age of 86 in JAKARTA and he was given a state funeral and nicknamed as PAK HARTO ( THE SMILING GENERAL ) .

The Yogini – A Bride in need https://amzn.eu/d/4cnL7vC

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED ……………….

Published by arbind kumar

I had been a researcher. Presently in service.

9 thoughts on “THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-78

  1. I recall my Indonesian pen pal writing in 1965 about these events and how he saw many of bodies floating down the river nearby. His own father, a tailor, had been a revolutionary fighting the Dutch for independence in the 1940s. It was an interesting and tragic time for the country, with the end of Sukarno’s regime.

    Liked by 1 person

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