The INDONESIAN President SUKARNO was a romantic revolutionary under whose authoritarian rule the INDONESIAN nationalism grew the most . He was popularly known as BANG ( OLD BROTHER ) . To establish INDONESIA’s identity on the map of world , he erected a number of monuments and constructed many infrastructure projects in the entire country . But his critics had criticized all of them on the basis of the fact that they couldn’t be the substitute for the real development in a deteriorating economy of INDONESIA as such . Despite such criticism he was praised by the people for taking on the west . During his period the INDONESIAN nationalists claimed for WESTERN NEW GUINEA on the basis of the fact that it had been the part of the DUTCH EAST INDIES before independence . Following an INDONESIAN-SOVIET ARMS AGREEMENT in 1960 , INDONESIA was ready for a diplomatic and military confrontation with the DUTCH . But due to timely intervention and pressure of the US on the NETHERLANDS , INDONESIA could be able to take over WESTERN NEW GUINEA in 1963 . Similarly in 1963 , KONFRONTASI ( INDONESIAN NAME FOR CONFRONTATION ) started with the new state of MALAYSIA . It was an armed conflict from 1963 to 1966 against INDONESIA’s opposition to the formation of the FEDERATION OF MALAYSIA . The creation of MALAYSIA was a merger of the FEDERATION OF MALAYA , SINGAPORE , BRITISH BORNEO and SARAWAK . The policy of confrontation against NEW DUTCH GUINEA from March to August 1962 and the INDONESIAN-backed BRUNEI revolt in December 1962 had repercussions . MALAYSIA had direct military support from the GREAT BRITAIN , AUSTRALIA and NEW ZEALAND , while INDONESIA had indirect support from the USSR and CHINA . Thus , making it an episode of the COLD WAR IN ASIA as such .

SUKARNO had developed an independent INDONESIAN foreign policy . Reviving the glories of INDONESIAN NATIONAL REVOLUTION , SUKARNO increased the anti- BRITISH sentiment in his rhetoric and mounted military offensives along the INDONESIA-MALAYSIA border in BORNEO. The PKI rallied in the street of JAKARTA in this support . The West became increasingly alarmed at the independent foreign policy of INDONESIA . As a result , the US withdrew its aids to INDONESIA . SUKARNO , on the other hand , compelled by the ongoing pressure of the PKI and general instability of the internal politics of INDONESIA , might have diverted the attention of the INDONESIAN people towards a new foreign conflict . In the late fifties , SUKARNO argued that MALAYSIA was a BRITISH puppet state . So any expansion of MALAYSIA would increase BRITISH control over the region which would be detrimental to INDONESIA’S national security as such . He also strongly opposed the BRITISH decolonisation initiative regarding formation of the FEDERATION OF MALAYSIA which would compromise the MALAYA PENINSULA and NORTH BORNEO . SUKARNO also blamed the new nation would establish neo-imperialism and neo-colonialism in South-East ASIA . SUKARNO’S campaign against the formation of INDONESIA was virtually motivated by a desire to unite the MALAYA PENINSULA and the entire island of BORNEO under INDONESIAN rule . The aim was to unite the MALAYAN race , the concept of which was created by SUKARNO , KESATUAN MELAYU MUDA and IBRAHIM YAACOB . Similarly , the PHILIPPINES , on the other hand , claimed Eastern North BORNEO with this argument that the BORNEO colony had historical links with the PHILIPPINES through the SULU ARCHIPELAGO .

SUKARNO saw the formation of MALAYSIA as an obstacle to the MAPHILINDO , a proposed non-political confederation of three South-East ASIAN countries of INDONESIA , MALAYA and the PHILIPPINES . The original plan for united state based on the concept of MALAYAN race was attempted by WENCESLAO VINZONS during the PHILIPPINES’ Commonwealth era . It was VINZONS who had envisioned a united MALYAN race which he termed as ‘MALAYAN IRREDENTA’ . President of the PHILIPPINES , DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL initially didn’t oppose the concept and even initiated the MANILA ACCORD . MALAYSIA severed deplomatic ties after the PHILIPPINES differed recognizing it as successor state of MALAYA . However , unlike INDONESIA , PHILIPPINES didn’t engage in hostilities . SUKARNO announced in 1964 ‘ A YEAR OF DANGEROUS LIVING ‘ during INDONESIA Independence day celebration . Following President SUKARNO call INDONESIAN Forces began a campaign of airborne and seaborne infiltration of MALAYSIAN PENINSULA on 17th August 1964 . In December 1964 , the Commonwealth intelligence began to reporting a building up of INDONESIAN infiltration forces in KALIMANTAN opposing KUCHING as danger of possible escalation of hostilities , two additional BRITISH battalions were subsequently deployed to BORNEO . Due to landings in MALAYSIA and INDONESIA’S continuous troop build up , AUSTRALIA and NEW ZEALAND also deployed their combat forces to BORNEO in early 1965 . On the other hand , BRITAIN had already started ‘OPERATION CLARET’, a long-running series of secretive raids , conducted by the BRITISH Commonwealth special forces in BORNEO from June 1964 to early 1966 to contain the hostilities between INDONESIA and the newly formed state called MALAYSIA so that it could not escalate further as such .

The Yogini – A Bride in need



Published by arbind kumar

I had been a researcher. Presently in service.


    1. Thanks for suggestions . I am actually related to more than 10 online channels and writing on them continuously . From 9 AM to 9 PM I am writing . And I have recently written a Novel ‘ THE YOGINI : A BRIDE IN NEED’ available on . So I care less on the uses of words . I care more on ideas . To me , blog should be palatable . Easy to digest . Attractive . Secular . Not obnoxious . And with all the tenets of how to write about History/Historical facts and continuously . As to me , every history is a contemporary history . And it a continuous dialogue between the historians of the present and facts of the past . Thanks for suggestions . You can also read my articles on International Affairs/Relation on LinkedIn . Thanks !

      Liked by 2 people

    1. Almost all monuments have been taken from Free INDONESIAN MONUMENTS SERIES , having no serious implication with the post . However , most of the pictures are taken according to the period of the post . The present post is that of the period when Christianity and Islam were the dominant forces in Indonesia . And Almost all structures and monuments of the period were built either by the Europeans or by Arabs . Thanks for your query .


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