Since independence in 1945 , INDONESIA had been facing numerous problems . Regional differences due to customes , religion , race and on the basis of ‘ism’ came to the fore . The impact of Christianity , the fear of JAVANESE political domination , the rise of Marxism and the struggle of the militant DARUL ISLAM , which had waged guerrilla war against the REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA from 1948 to 1962 , were a few problems the country was facing after independence . Apart from that , severe poverty , ruined economy and low illiteracy level were a few areas required to be addressed instantly . As against the Constitution of 1945 , in 1950 , a constitution was framed for establishment of a parliamentary system of the government in the country . But between 1945 to 1958 , seventeen cabinets worked due to coalition politics . At last , in 1955 , long-delayed parliamentary elections were held in which the INDONESIAN NATIONAL PARTY ( PNI ) and the COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDONESIA ( PKI ) received strong support of the people . But no party received a clear majority as such in the Parliament which resulted in the short-lived coalition government in INDONESIA . The provisional constitution of 1950 which came into force on 17th August 1950 , was abrogated on 5th July 1959 when President SUKARNO issued a decree dessolving the Constitutional Assembly by restoring the 1945 Constitution of INDONESIA .

SUKARNO was , thus , critical of the Parliamentary democracy . In 1956 , he openly stated that the Parliamentary democracy was ‘ based upon inherent conflict ‘ as it was counter to INDONESIAN notion of harmony . Instead of the Parliamentary democracy , he sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and concensus under the guidance of village elders . President SUKARNO believed that the Parliamentary democracy/system brought about during the Liberal Democracy period was ineffective for a country like INDONESIA due to its divisive political situation at that time . With the declaration of Martial law and the introduction of the GUIDED DEMOCRACY system , INDONESIA returned to Presidential system and SUKARNO became the head of the government again . Under the GUIDED DEMOCRACY system , concept was that the citizens should be guided/trained before the establishment of Parliamentary democracy as such . For that SUKARNO proposed a threefold blend of NATIONALISM ( NASIONANISME ) , RELIGION ( AGAMA ) , COMMUNISM ( KOMUNISME ) into a co-operative NAS-AKOM government . These measures were meant for satisfying the important factions of the INDONESIAN politics : 1. THE ARMY ; 2. THE ISLAMIC GROUPS ; and 3. THE COMMUNISTS . With the support of military , SUKARNO proclaimed ‘ GUIDED DEMOCRACY ‘ in 1959 and proposed a cabinet representing all the major political parties of INDONESIA including the COMMUNIST PARTY OF INDONESIA ( PKI ) . But PKI was never actually given functional cabinet positions as such .

Before we go further and study about the SUKARNO era in the INDONESIAN history , let us know a little about the personality of this charismatic leader . SUKARNO , the first president of INDONESIA , was a great orator, a staunch nationalist and maverick statesman -cum -politician of his time . He was born on 6th June 1901 in SOERABAJA , DUTCH EAST INDIES and died on 21st June 1970 in JAKARTA , INDONESIA at the age of 69 due to kidney failure . His father’s name was SOEKEMI SOSRODIHARDJO and his mother name was IDA AYU NYOMAN RAI . He studied at BANDUNG INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY . He had nine wives name of whom were as follows : 1. OETARI ( 1921 to 1922 ) ; 2. INGGIT GARNASIH ( 1923 to 1942 ) ; 3. FATMAVATI ( 1943 ) ; 4. HARTINI ( 1953 ) ; 5. KARTINI MANAPPO ( 1959 to 1968 ) ; 6. NAOKO NEMOTO ( 1962 ) ; 7. HARYATI ( 1963 to 1966 ) ; 8. YURIKE SANGER ( 1964 to 1967 ) ; and 9. HELDY DJAFAR ( 1966 to 1967 ) . Out of these wives , SUKARNO had 12 children including MEGAWATI , RACHMAWATI , SUKMAWATI and GURUH . The name of his political party was INDONESIAN NATIONAL PARTY ( 1927 to 1931 ; 1945 ) . He remained the president of INDONESIA from 18th August 1945 to 12th March 1967 when GENERAL SUHARTO officially assumed the presidency replacing President SUKARNO who remained under house arrest until his death in 1970 . Despite that , at least ten Prime Ministers worked under him during the period of his presidency , the first Prime Minister being SUTAN SJAHRIR and the last one was DJUANDA KARTAWIDJAJA .

The Yogini – A Bride in need



Published by arbind kumar

I had been a researcher. Presently in service.


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