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THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART-71

INDONESIA ( SERIES -4 )

THE AGE OF ISLAMIC STATES IN INDONESIA

During the MAJAPAHIT regime itself MUSLIM traders had started coming to INDONESIA . And with this the process of proselytizing the local inhabitants began . When it reached at peak in the 14th century, MAJAPAHIT power began to decline ranging from 1478 AD to 1520 AD . It was because of the fact that the MAJAPAHIT regime was unable to control the rising power of the SULTANATE of MALACCA . A large number of people , priests , artisans , courtiers and many members of the royal family moved east to the Island of BALI at the end of the MAJAPAHIT regime . As per the accounts of the ABBASID CALIPHATE ( THE THIRD CALIPHATE TO SUCCEED THE ISLAMIC PROPHET MUHAMMAD , RULED FROM BAGHDAD ) , many MUSLIM sailors traveled to the INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO due to its precious spice trade commodities like cloves , nutmeg , galangal etc. The spread of ISLAM dated back to the thirteenth century onwards in the Island of SUMATRA . However , its process was complicated and slow . The spread of ISLAM could be attributed to the increasing trade links outside the ARCHIPELAGO . In fact , trades and royalty of the major Kingdoms were the first to adopt the new religion called ISLAM . In the most of the parts of JAVA and SUMATRA , ISLAM spread by the end of 16th century . However , ISLAM in INDONESIA overlaid and mixed with the existing culture and the religious influences as such . And it shaped the predominant form of ISLAM in JAVA , INDONESIA . The HINDU majority concentrated in BALI only .

We have learnt something/little about the SULTANATE OF MATARAM in our earlier blog . Now a fresh look at this SULTANATE will give us a new light as such . Virtually , the SULTANATE OF MATARAM was the third SULTANATE in JAVA after the SULTANATE OF DEMAK BINTORO and the SULTANATE OF PAJANG . The SULTANATE OF MATARAM was the last major independent JAVANESE kingdom of JAVA before coming to DUTCH . It’s first monarch was SENOPATI who ruled from 1586 AD to 1601 AD . During the reign of SULTAN AGUNG ANYOKROKUSUMO , who ruled from 1613 AD to 1645 AD , the MATARAM SULTANATE expanded to the maximum extent . And began to decline after his death in 1645 . PAKUBUWONO II was the last ruler who ruled from 1743 AD to 1749 AD before MATARAM fell in the hands of DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY ( VOC ) in 1749 AD . The main sources of the history of MATARAM SULTANATE were local JAVANESE historical accounts called BABAD and the accounts of the DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY . Defects with the local JAVANESE BABAD were that they were generally undated , obscure , mythological and full of fantastic elements ; for they were used as tools to legitimize the authority of the Ruler.

The SULTANATE OF BANTEN was a BANTENESE ISLAMIC TRADING COMPANY founded in the 16th century in BANTEN . BANTEN is a port city on the northwest coast of JAVA . It was said to have been founded by SUNAN GUNUNGJATI who had previously founded CIREBON . Its capital was OLD BANTENESE and SERANG . And its languages were BANTENESE apart from other languages like CIREBONESE , SUNDANESE , CIKONENG LAMPUNG and BANYUMAS JAVANESE . And the main SULTANS who ruled the kingdom were as follows : 1. SULTAN MAULANA HASANUDDIN , WHO RULED FROM 1552 AD TO 157O AD ; 2. SULTAN AGENG TIRTAYASA , WHO RULED FROM 1651 AD TO 1683 AD ; 3. SULTAN MAULANA MUHAMMAD SHAFIUDDIN , WHO RULED FROM 1809 AD TO 1813 AD ; and 4. SULTAN SYARIF MUHAMMAD ASH-SHAFIUDDIN . It was once a big trading center of pepper in the South-East ASIA . The glory of the kingdom reached its zenith from late 16th century to mid-17th century . In the late 17th century , its importance was overshadowed by BATAVIA , the MALAYAN city and the capital of the DUTCH EAST INDIES . And it was finally annexed by the DUTCH EAST INDIES in 1913 . Its core area , now , forms the INDONESIAN city of BANTEN with the GREAT MOSQUE OF BANTEN , a place of attraction for the people of the country and outside of it .

NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .

TO BE CONTINUED …………….

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Published by arbind kumar

I had been a researcher. Presently in service.

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