Like most of the southeast ASIAN Countries , INDONESIA was also influenced by the INDIAN culture . Since second century AD onwards and upto twelfth century AD , the INDIAN Dynasties like PALLAVA , GUPTA , PALA and CHOLA , spread the INDIAN culture throughout South-East ASIAN countries including INDONESIA . Though references to the YAWADVIPA , a HINDU Kingdom had appeared in the SANSKRIT Literatures since 200 BC as such . As the references can be found in the ancient INDIAN Epic RAMAYANA that how SUGRIVA , RAMA’S chief of the army , sent his men to YAWADVIPA in search of SITA , the wife of RAMA . As per the TAMIL text like MANIMEKALAI , NAGAPURAM was the capital of the JAVA Kingdom . On the peak of the MOUNT RAKSA in the PANAITAN Island , a statue of LORD GANESHA has been found from the UJUNG KULON NATIONAL PARK in the west JAVA . It appears to be that of the 1st century AD . We also have Archeological evidences of SUNDA Kingdom in the west JAVA of second century AD . The JIWA temple of BATUJAYA , KARAWANG , west JAVA also appears to be of that period only . The south INDIAN culture was spread over there in JAVA by the PALLAVA Dynasty between 4th and 5th century AD . The stone Inscriptions written in the PALLAVA scripts found in JAVA and BORNEO of the 5th century AD ascertained this fact . The CHINESE traveler FA-HIEN with about 200 fishermen reached JAVA in the beginning of the 5th century and he had written in his Accounts that all the inhabitants of JAVA that time were HINDUS . All the fishermen who accompanied him from the GANGES to SIHAL ( NOW SRI LANKA ) and from SINAL to JAVA and from there to CHINA— were HINDUS . It is also said that in the 75 AD , from KALINGA ( NOW ORISSA ) a group of fishermen , through the way of BENGAL , reached JAVA and established INDIAN colonies there . They civilized the local people . They made them cultured and thus , the 75th AD was considered as the date of their coming to the Island as well as the beginning of the first year of the JAVA calander . Though the language of JAVA was MALAYA , yet SANSKRIT was the language of religious , political and historical Books and Manuscripts of JAVA as such .


The first and the oldest HINDU Kingdom that existed in INDONESIA was the KUTAI MARTADIPURA KINGDOM in the East KALIMANTAN on the Island of BORNEO , INDONESIA . The native ethnic group called as URANG KUTAI , having population of around 300,000 people , have their own language called the KUTAINESE language which accompanied with their own rich history . KUTAI is the historical region where , at least , two Kingdoms ruled : 1. KUTAI MARTADIPURA KINGDOM FROM 399 AD TO 1635 AD , A HINDU KINGDOM ; and 2. KUTAI KARTANEGARA SULTANATE FROM 1300 ONWARD , A MUSLIM KINGDOM . The seven stone pillars or YUPA have been found in KUTAI , KAMAN Estuary , near the MAHAKAM River. The YUPA Inscriptions described about three Rulers : 1. THE FIRST RULER WAS KUDUNGGA , ‘ THE LORD OF MEN ‘ (NARENDRA) ; 2. HIS SON ASWAWARMAN , ‘ VANSA KARTR ‘, ( THE FOUNDER OF THE DYNASTY ) ; and 3. MULAVARMAN ‘LORD OF KINGS ‘ (RAJENDRA) ,THE SON OF LATTER AND THE GRANDSON OF THE FORMER . As about the origin of KUDUNGGA , the historians are not unanimous as such . Some of them are of the opinion that they presumably were the descendants from the royalties of the MAGADHA EMPIRE of INDIA . While others argue that the name is similar to BUGIS name of KUDUNGGA . However , his son and the grandson adopted the HINDUISTIC belief as such . During the reign of King MULAVARMAN , the YUPA INSCRIPTIONS were made . It is believed to be made by BRAHMINS who received alms from King MULAVARMAN . RAJA MULAVARMAN was said to have conquered his neighbors in battle . He is also stated to have increased/expanded the Lands of KUTAI by a VEDIC RITUAL called ASVAREDJWA . This ritual in INDIA was called ASVAMEDH YAGNA which was performed by the Kings in the ancient INDIA . For this ritual a horse was released for free roaming uninterrupted as long as he could . And the entire land , till where the horse roamed , was declared as the land of the King . MULAVARMAN was also known for his tribute of gold to his God . It is also not clear why the YUPA INSCRIPTIONS were made during his period , because the name of his kingdom was not mentioned on the Inscriptions nor in any other documents as such . It is also not clear why these Inscriptions were erected and with what purpose . But it is clear that the LESONG BATU , a megalith stone , located in the MUARA KAMAN district is believed to be the remnants used to make the ancient YUPA INSCRIPTIONS in the 4th century AD .


The KUTAI KARTANEGARA SULTANATE was established in the end of 13th century AD . It was located in the region of TEPIAN BATU which was also called KUTAI LAMA . The first known ruler of the SULTANATE was AJI BATARA AGUNG DEWA SAKTI who was supposed to have ruled from 1300 AD to 1325 AD . AJI PANGERAN SINUM PANJI MENDAPA , who ruled from 1635 AD to 1650 AD , conquered the kingdom of KUTAI MARTADIPURA and merged the two realms . Thus , the name of the new kingdom was KUTAI KARTANEGARA ING MARTADIPURA . In 1667 , the DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY ( VOC ) attacked MAKASSAR on the Island of SULAWESI which led to the downfall of BUGIS kingdom of GOWA . As a result , some of the BUGIS under the leadership of LAMOHANG DAENG MANGKONA immigrated to KUTAI and the Ruler of KUTAI allowed them to settle in KAMPUNG MELANTAI around the KARANG MUMUS RIVER . And this settlement grew and developed as the modern town of what is called SAMARINDA . Since 17th century , almost all BUGIS adopted ISLAM . AJI MUHAMMAD IDRIS , who ruled the region from 1732 AD to 1739 AD , was the first ruler to have an ISLAMIC name as such . AJI MUHAMMAD MUSLIHUDDIN in 1782 moved his capital from PEMARANGAN to TEPIAN PANDAN , the present day city of TENGGARONG . But in1844 AD , the DUTCH defeated the SULTAN AJI MUHAMMAD SALEHUDIN and forced him to exile after taking direct control of KUTAI . In 1942 , the JAPANESE invaded the region and acknowledged a KOOTI KINGDOM which was the subject of TENNO . In the JAPANESE language the Emperor is called TENNO . In 1945 AD , KUTAI with its neighbors joined the EAST KALIMANTAN FEDERATION and finally became the part of the REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA .



Published by arbind kumar

I had been a researcher. Presently in service.


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