HEIAN PERIOD OF JAPAN CONTINUED…..
HEIAN PERIOD OF JAPAN was known for stability of the JAPANESE population and thus the JAPANESE society after a long period , and the Imperial Court consolidated its control over the EMISHI tribe of the northern HONSU . The title of SEII TAI-SHOGUN ( THE GREAT BARBARIAN SUBDUING GENERAL ) was conferred on OTOMO NO OTOMARO for the first time by the Imperial Court . And SUKANOUE NO TAMURAMARO , the then SEII TAI-SHOGUN in 802 AD subjugated the EMISHI tribe who were led by the tribal leader like ATERUI . ABE CLAN , who occupied crucial positions in the regional government during the period , came into conflict with the central government in 1051 AD . ABE CLAN was one of the oldest JAPANESE CLANS and was one of the original CLANS of the YAMATO CLAN as such and got much more prominence during the HEIAN PERIOD . This conflict with the central Imperial Court led to the ZENKUNEN WAR or known in the English language as the FORMER NINE YEARS’ WAR or sometimes also called as EARLY NINE YEARS’ WAR which went on from 1051 AD to 1063 AD and in which the Imperial Court got victory and the leader of the ABE CLAN , ABE NO SADATO was surrendered . Like other major conflicts during the HEIAN PERIOD such as the GOSANNEN WAR and the GENPEL WAR , the ZENKUNEN WAR was the best example of the power struggles within the different SAMURAI CLANS as such . Similarly , in the year 1156 , rivalry for usurping the throne betbeen EMPEROR GO-SHIRAKAWA and the EMPEROR SUTOKU took place and both of them hired TAIRA and MINAMOTO CLANS respectively for taking over the throne by force in which the former CLAN got victory and the grandson of TAIRA NO KIYOMORI , ANTOKU was declared as the Emperor of KYOTO . As a result the rivalry between these two CLANS grew and resulted in what is called the HEJI REBELLION of 1160 AD . Again in the year 1180 AD , war between two CLANS started but the decisive war fought between the two CLANS erupted in 1181 AD after the death of TAIRA NO KIYOMORI and continued for more than four years and ended in 1185 AD . In the naval battle of DAN-NO-URA ultimately MINAMOTO NO YOSHITSUNE took over as the de facto Ruler of JAPAN . So , despite generally stability among the JAPANESE people and the JAPANESE society , war between different SAMURAI went on during HEIAN PERIOD as such .
THE JAPANESE CULTURE DURING HEIAN The Imperial Court became now the vibrant centre of arts and cultures . KOKINSHU and the TOSA DIARY were two classical poetry collections of the period written by the great JAPANESE poet like KI NO TSURAYUKI . The development of KARA written syllabaries denoted declining of the CHINESE influences over JAPAN during the HEIAN PERIOD . The official missions to CHINA started during the TANG DYNASTY of CHINA ended in the nineth century AD during the HEIAN PERIOD . However , informal missions of monks and scholars to CHINA continued . But all these development resulted into the rise of native form of Arts and Literatures in JAPAN . And the JAPANESE architectural excellence like HEIAN KYO and the temple of BYODO-IN were built in UJI in 1043 AD . KOBO DAISHI , a JAPANESE BUDDHIST traveler , learnt MANTRATAN ( TANTRIC ) system of BUDDHISM from the CHINESE scholar like HUE-KUO ( 746 AD TO 805 AD ) . HUE-KUO was the desciple of an INDIAN BUDDHIST scholar AMOGH VAJRA (705 AD- 774 AD ) . When KOBO DAISHI returned to JAPAN from CHINA in 805 AD , he brought with him paintings of NAHAKARUN GARVMANDAL and VAJRADHATU MANDAL made by the CHINESE painter LEE-CHEN . These paintings brought by KOBO DAISHI became the sources of spread of MANTRAYAN CULT of BUDDHISM in JAPAN . These two Mandals were included with full of BUDDHA and BHOUDHISHTVA , and Replica of almost all INDIAN deities like the LORD GANESHA , LORD SHIVA , LORD VISHNU , BRAHMA including the Replica of almost all GRAH and NAKSHATRA , RASHIS and RISHI . But in all these replicas one can see the reflections of all the indigenous people and culture as such . The JAPANESE also considered LORD GANESHA as the God of RIDDHI & SUDDHI ( FORTUNE ) whose JAPANESE name was SHODEV or KANGOTEN . And the oldest picture of LORD GANESHA in JAPAN was that of 821 AD in the DAIGOJI MONESTRY of the city of KYOTO .
KOBO DAISHI , BUDDHISM AND COMMONIZATION OF EDUCATION
KOBO DAISHI came in touch with the great INDIAN BUDDHIST Philosopher PRAGYA TARA during his sojourn in CHINA . PRAGYA TARA was a KASHMIRI BUDDHIST under whose influences KOBO DAISHI tried to bring about cultural revivalism in JAPAN. As a result , commonization of education among the people of JAPAN started . Previously the education of Academy were restricted only to the elite class people of the JAPANESE society . Now Education became accessible for the common men as such . On the basis of Sanskrit Alphabets , he prepared unique JAPANESE Alphabets comprised of fifty letters and wrote a poetry in which no letter was used twice . This poetry was known as EROH and considered as one of the best poetries of the JAPANESE language . He got inspiration to write this poetry from the great BUDDHIST book PARINIRVAN SHUTRA . In this way the JAPANESE Cultural and Linguistic dependence on CHINA were minimized to a considerable extent during this period .
In 816 AD , KOBO DAISHI under the order of the Imperial Court established a BUDDHIST MONASTERY in the lush green valley of KOYASAN known as OKINO-IN where he was engraved after his death and later it became the place of pilgrim for the masses . This MANTRAYAN MONASTERY was completed in 823 AD in about seven years . After the construction of the KOYASAN MONASTERY , he was assigned the duty of protection of lands and properties of the BUDDHIST temple of KYO-O-GOKUKU-JI . It was also called TOJI temple where twenty one statues of INDRA , BRAHMA , SKAND , KARTIKA , SARSWATI ( ALL INDIAN GOD AND GODESS ) were established . In this way BUDDHISM of MANTRAYAN SECT spread among the JAPANESE people as such .
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .
TO BE CONTINUED …………………….