As MEGASTHENES in his book INDICA has written about the INDIAN society during the MAURIAN period ( 321 BC to 181 BC ) in detail . He has enumerated about seven types of people living in the then INDIAN society : 1. PHILOSOPHERS ; 2. FARMERS ; 3. SOLDIERS ; 4. HERDS-MEN ; 5. ARTISANS ; 6. MAGISTRATES ; and 7. COUNCILORS . Likewise , the ancient CHINESE society was divided into four types of people . They were : 1. SHIH (SCHOLARS) 2. NUNG ( FARMERS ) ; 3. KUNG (ARTISANS) ; and 4. SHANG (BUSINESSMEN) . These were the social organizations of ancient CHINA . As against INDIA , there didn’t exist a caste system as such in the ancient CHINA . As one group of people could easily wine and dine with each other . Marriages among different types of people could easily be executed among all the above mentioned four groups of the CHINESE society . Their professions also depended on their choice . They could easily be converted from one profession to other profession . Intra-profession Marriages were not prohibited . The first type of people I.e SHIH or scholars had special place and honor in the society . And the last I.e SHANG ( BUSINESSMEN ) were considered by the people as the most bad profession as they were non-productive elements of the society and like leeches sucking the blood of the people of the CHINESE society as such .
The family had an important place in the CHINESE society . They used to give more emphasis on the devotion to their parents . Similarly , they used to give importance on their other family members like brothers and sisters . Their only wish was how their family trees should grow uninterrupted . Joint Family System was liked by one and all . In a family ,where apart from parents , uncle-aunts , brothers , their wives , cousins and their wives used to live , was preferred . Such family was called BU-TAI-TUNG-TANG meaning by a family where lived people of five generations . Such families were honored both in the society and by the government as such . We have numerous examples where more than hundred of people used to live together in a family . I have already mentioned in my earlier blog about how a CHINESE scholar like TING MING YUN who was born in the year 1660 AD and survived for 258 long years , married fourteen times and had 180 children living altogether . Such was the importance of the joint Family System in the ancient CHINESE society as such .
To LI-CHI ( a religious book of CHINA ) , there should be three duties of women in a family . It was called SUN-TSUNG in the CHINESE language . They were as follows : 1. She should obey his father in her childhood ; 2. After marriage she should obey her husband ; and 3. In case she became widow , she should obey her children . Similarly , there should be four characteristics of a woman : 1. Chastity and religiosity ; 2. Speak lovingly and with sweetness ; 3. Morality and gentleness ; and 4. And well-trained in the household works . The CHINESE women were reared with especial caution and discipline . LIANGCHI ( GENTLE WIFE ) and HIANSHU ( KIND MOTHER ) were considered ideal women in the CHINESE society . As the family was the centre of the entire society , likewise wife was considered as the central to each and every family of CHINA . She had entire power of the house and she was supposed to govern over her family with as she wished . In the ancient period the CHINESE believed that men should not interfere in the household works and it was the exclusive arena of the women . The CHINESE religious text LI-CHING states that the man should not interfere in the household works and the woman should not interfere in the outside the house works as such . Many historical records show that in the ancient period the women had exclusive rights on properties of the family . And they were declared successors of those properties of the family . That’s why there was a proverb in the ancient CHINESE society that for a warrior it was easy to tackle lakhs of soldiers at a time , but for him it was not easy to tackle his wife so easily at all . Such was the status of women in the ancient CHINESE society as such . But later on this status of women was reduced considerably by the CHINESE Philosophers and the CHINESE establishment .
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THIS BLOG ARE TEXT BOOKS AND OTHER WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .
TO BE CONTINUED …………..