THE CIVILIZATION OF ZIMBABWE THE ANCIENT CIVILIZATION OF ZIMBABWE is little known among historians . The dilapidated stones citadel of ZIMBABWE once said to be the resistance of the Bibilical Queen of Sheba is now the capital city of an indigenous Empire that existed in that regions of AFRICA between 13th to 15th century . It extended to the the regions of modern day BOTSWANA , ZIMBABWE and MOJAMBIQUE . The kingdom of ZIMBABWE was rich in cattles trades and trades of precious metals . It had a port on the Indian Ocean Coast which showed that it had been a trade centre of AFRICA . The remains of artifacts like the ARABIAN glasses , the CHINESE pottery and the EUROPEAN Textiles showed that it was a large trading center having trade connections with different countries of ASIA and EUROPE through the INDIAN Ocean . However , it was started declining in the 15th century AD onwards due to the massive and frequent attacks from the outsiders as such which createdl illusion among historians about about existence of this civilization as such .
THE NOK CIVILIZATION OF NIGERIA THE NOK CIVILIZATION OF NIGERIA was one of the ancient Civilizations of Sub- Saharan AFRICA . The historians believed that the Civilization dated back to about 1500 BC . But as per the Archeological excavations and mining operations in 1928 revealed that it developed around NOK village of the central NIGERIA around 500 BC or so . The NOK people were expert in metal melting technology and the terracotta arts as such . The Archeological evidences showed that the NOK were well versed in iron melting technology , used for making different iron tools . It gave little edge to the NOK Civilization to different adjacent Civilizations as such . Moreover , in most of the ancient Civilizations , including that of INDIA , the stone age passed to the bronze age and then came the age of iron . But it appeared that in case of the NOK Civilization the bronze period of Civilizations passed over by the iron age Civilization as such . On the other hand , their figurative arts influenced many of the later Civilizations of the NIGER RIVER VALLEY . NIGERIA , being a tropical region was , unable to preserve the ancient mud-bricks and wooden buildings of the NOK Civilization . Existing emblematic Clay Statues shows that the NOK people used play on various musical instruments . They also shows figures of cowering prisoners , fearsome warriors and passionate lovers . All these indicated towards a well established culture and civilization of the ancient NOK people of NIGERIA had .
THE MUTAPA EMPIRE OF AFRICA THE MUTAPA EMPIRE OF AFRICA was one of the oldest and largest Kingdoms existed between 1430 BC to 1760 BC . It was consisted of the southern portion of AFRICA extending from the LIMPOPO and the ZAMBEZI Rivers to the INDIAN OCEAN COASTLINE . It is said that the warrior prince of ZIMBABWE had established the Empire of MUTAPA , one of the largest Empire existing in the southern parts of AFRICA . The Kingdom of MUTAPA was so powerful that it used to collect 50% of taxes on imported goods . And most of the imports were in the hands of PORTUGUESE . A time also came in the history of the MUTAPA EMPIRE when the rumor spread that the BIBILICAL mines of KING SOLOMON were held by the Ruler of MUTAPA . And the great Empire started disintegrating due to the internal factional infighting which gave the PORTUGUESE an opportunity to make it its own vassal as sch . And in this way the entire Empire come into the hands of the PORTUGUESE .
THE ETHIOPIAN EMPIRE OF AFRICA THE ETHIOPIAN EMPIRE OF AFRICA spread from 1137 AD to 1975 AD . The ETHIOPIAN EMPIRE was the longest lasting AFRICAN EMPIRE which resisted numerous attempts of the enemies ranging from the OTTOMAN EMPIRE to the ITALIAN armies to the EGYPTIAN invaders . When the scramble for AFRICA was going on among the EUROPEAN countries , the ETHIOPIAN KINGDOM had defeated ITALY in the first ITLO-ETHIOPIAN War but got defeat in the second ITLO-ETHIOPIAN war in 1935 . However , it continued till 1974 when the Military Junta abolished the Monarchy . Despite that the people of ETHIOPIA had a firm view that some of its rulers were the decedent of the great King SOLOMON as such .
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG ARE NUMEROUS WRITTEN MATERIALS ON THE SUBJECT .
TO BE CONTINUED ……………..
4 thoughts on “THE WORLD CIVILIZATIONS AND INDIA , PART -9”
One more informative piece from you 👌👌
The Italian “occupation” of Ethiopia during Fascism is a page in history that I’m not very proud of
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Thanks for this regret . After we all are equal human beings .