THE ANCIENT CIVILIZATION OF EGYPT THE ANCIENT CIVILIZATION OF EGYPT was the civilization coalesced around 3100 BC . It developed along the lower reaches of river NILE . EGYPT underwent numerous changes of governance during the course of its history . It was invaded and conquered by different foreign powers during different times . The HYKSOS , the LIBYANS , the NUBIANS , the ASSYRIANS , the ACHAEMENID PERSIANS and MACEDONIANS under ALEXANDER , the great , ruled over EGYPT on different occasions . Ultimately in the 30 BC when CLEOPATRA was ruling over the country , it fell under the ROMAN EMPIRE and it became one of the provinces of that great Empire . The stability of the ancient Egyptian Empire was assured by the agricultural progress in the famous fertile lands along the NILE RIVER . NILE RIVER VALLEY had an alluvial soil for various agricultural produces as such which brought about affluency in the entire region of the ancient EGYPT . The region produced surplus foods which supported the dense population of the country and their social , cultural , economic and political developments as such . Apart from that the mineral exploitation of the valley and the desert region gave EGYPT economic prosperity to a considerable extent . The unity of the ancient EGYPTIAN people was assured due to other factors like : development of independent writing system , organized military systems , control of PHARAOH over administrative systems , established faith in their religious systems and having well planned organizations of collective constructions and undertaking of various agricultural projects as such . Similarly , the achievements of the people of the ancient EGYPT could better be enumerated as : building of PYRAMIDS , quarrying , surveying of lands , development of systems of medicine & mathematics , glass technology , literary innovation and development in the fields of arts and architectures .
FULA EMPIRE ( 17 TH TO 19 TH CENTURY ) THE FULA EMPIRE was spread over MASINA province and continued from 17th to 19th century . When in the 1591 AD MARRAKESH captured TIMBUKTU and GAO , the army of MARRAKESH started torturing the people of MASINA . Due to that a sort of dissatisfaction arose among the people of MASINA province . But in 1627 AD HAYAD-2 defeated MARRAKESH and driven them out of MASINA . This Dynasty ruled over MASINA for more than two hundred years . SEKU became the Ruler of MASINA in 1810 AD and during his period the province of MASINA got prominence . He devided the entire province into twenty districts and developed a well established system of justice in his empire which developed faith in the system and the government . During his period , MASINA got progress to a considerable extent . However , the province of MASINA declined in the 19th century due to continuous attacks by the ARABS .
TIMBUKTU ( 16TH TO 18TH CENTURY ) TIMBUKTU , a regional trade centre of the Medieval Period was located at such a place in AFRICA that it fell prey of the attack of ARABS and other barbarians . Started out as a seasonal settlement TIMBUKTU, after the visit of MANSA MUSA in 1325 AD it developed as a centre of trade of salt , gold , ivory and slave . It became the part of MALI EMPIRE early in the 14th century AD . In 1433 AD TOREBBO attacked on TIMBUKTU and ruled for more than thirty years . However , it was liberated by the GAO . But again in 1591 the army of CORUKKO again captured TIMBUKTU . But continuous attack from all sides left the city of TIMBUKTU deserted . In the 17th and 18th century , due to continuous attacks by the ARABS and other barbarians of AFRICA , its population was reduced from one lakhs to hardly twenty to twenty five thousands . And the entire city became deserted and turned into ruins .
MAURICE DELAFOSSE ( 1870 to 1926 ) , an outstanding FRENCH colonial administrator and ethnographer , who worked in the field of language of AFRICA , has written about the destruction of the NEGRO CIVILIZATION in the following words : “When I went to KASAI-SANKURU , a province of AFRICA in the beginning of 20th century I saw big cities duly populated . High palaces here and there and palm trees in lines in both sides of the roads . Even on huts’ walls beautiful paintings existed . Nobody moved bare handed . In the hands of all of them existed grand weapons made up of iron or copper on the handle of which was decorated with either of skins of snake or of plates of gold and silver . Men and women used to wear clothes of velvet or of silk . Every cup , pipe and spoon was an artifact which could be compared to the artifacts of ROME and EUROPE . In these artifacts of AFRICA were decorated to such an extent that one could naturally praise them automatically . Alas ! The robber contractors of the EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION have destroyed this treasure of art and culture in their attempts of hundred years . SPIKE , GRANT , LIVINGSTON , STENLY , CAMERAN who went to each and every corner of AFRICA tell a similar story of cultural destruction . The EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION had destroyed the TRUTH-GODLINESS-BEAUTY of this country .”
NOTE : MAURICE DELAFOSSE WORDS HAVE BEEN TRANSLATED BY ME , SO LITTLE DESCREPANCY MAY BE POSSIBLE IN WORDS , BUT MEANINGS ARE QUITE SIMILAR .
TO BE CONTINUED ………………..