Bihar is a state of India having population of about 10 crore 40 lakhs ( as per census of 2011 ) , located in the Eastern part of the country . It came into existence on 22 March , 1912 after the division of Bengal . Again in 1936 Orisha was separated from Bihar . It’s division didn’t stop here but again on 15 November , 2000 the state of Jharkhand came into existence out of it . Official language of Bihar is Hindi and Additional Official language is Urdu . However , Languages like Bhojpuri , Maithili and Magadhi are also spoken there . It is the third largest state by population and the twelfth by territory .
Etymologically speaking , the term Bihar is derived from Sanskrit & Pali word ‘Vihar’ which means ‘ Abode ‘. An ancient inhabitance , the history of Bihar can be traced back to the Neolithic period ( 2500 – 1345 ) BC from the excavation of Chirand , a site of Saran district of Bihar . Along with Kuru and Panchal in the Northern India , in the present day North Bihar , there existed a kingdom called Videha during the Vedic period . As per the legend of Mathava Videha preserved in the SATPATH BRAHMANA , the Videhas migrated from the present day Punjab . GOTAMA RAHUGANA , the family priest of the Videha King , as per legend , moved eastwards from the banks of river , the SARASWATI to reach the banks of river, the GANDAK . They did not moved forward because the land further was not purified by the Fire God , AGNI . According to Hindu mythology , Videha King RAJA JANAK was a scholarly person and his Kingdom of Mithila once was the most civilized Kingdom of India . It is said that RAJA JANAK had especial predilection for scholars and whenever his chief priest MAHARISHI YAJNAVALKYA visited his Kindom , RAJA JANAK came out to receive Him on the boarder of his Kingdom itself . Thus , the history of Bihar goes back to ‘ the earliest dawn of human civilization ‘ as such . The Kingdom of Videha was later merged into the Republic of Vajji , the capital of which was Vaishali . As per the Jain and Buddhist literatures , Vajji was the first Republic of India since 6th century BC where King was elected by the people themselves .
MAGADHA Vratyas were said to be the pre-Aryan inhabitants of MAGADHA . The ATHARVA VEDA contains many references of Vratyas . With the emergence of Haryanka Dynasty in 684 BC , MAGADHA was further consolidated and it became a big power . It’s capital was Rajagriha . Bimbisara and Ajatshatru were two most important kings of Haryanka Dynasty . Bimbisara extended his influence over Koshala , Vaishali and Madras by establishing matrimonial relationships with them . He also annexed Pricipalities of Anga ( modern days Bhagalpur and Monghyr ) . He also built the city of New Rajagriga surrounded by the hills and made it his capital . During his regime two great religions were founded- 1st was Budhism and 2nd was Jainism which gave the mankind solutions to the many problems of their life . Goutam Buddha and Jain Mahavira were born during Bimbisara’s days and he was supposed to have listen to their first sermons in his Raj Mahal . Situated in the east of the legendary river Saraswati , the VENUVAN VIHAR was built in the VENUVAN by Bimbisara for Lord Buddha . This was his first gift to Lord Buddha where he spent a night with Lord Buddha when he got late after taking bath in the warm water of the Saraswati river as the gate of the city , by now , was shut . It was a matter of sad and sorrow that his son Ajatshatru imprisoned such a great King like Bimbisara to ascend to the throne of MAGADHA . He was later starved to death in the prison itself after ruling over MAGADHA for more than 25 years . Ajatshatru preferred to be prisoned at his Fort ; so that he could see Lord Buddha going to the Gridha Koot Parvat every morning , as Lord Buddha stayed there for a long period. As per Buddhist Manuscripts , Ajatshatru had confessed before Lord Buddha about the sin committed by him in the following words ,” Sin overcame me , Lord , weak and foolish and wrong that I am , in that for the sake of sovereignty I put to death my Father , that righteous man , that righteous King .” Ajatshatru later conquered the Kingdom of Vajji of Vaishali and built a great Empire of MAGADHA . His son Udayin ( Udyacharya , 460-444 BC ) , as per Buddhist and Jain literatures , founded the city of Pataliputra ( modern days Patna ) . And in this way the Haryanka Dynasty lasted not more than three to four generations after Bimbisara who could rule MAGADHA as such …. etc .
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