To MAHARISHI PATANJALI , the Man is a system of self-moving , self-organised and self-directed . MAHARISHI PATANJALI has propounded the Theory of YOGA DARSHAN . A 2nd century BC Philosopher , MAHARISHI PATANJALI wrote YOGA-SUTRA , which can be said to be MAGNA CARTA of Yogic practices . There are four chapters in YOGA-SUTRA . The first chapter is called Sanadhipada which discusses about the nature and goals of Samadhi ; the second chapter is called Sadhanapada in which the means for attaining that goal has been discussed ; the third chapter is known as Vibhutipada which describes about the inner aspects of Yoga ; and the fourth chapter is called Kaivalyapada which studies about the nature and form of Kaivaya , or liberation of soul and minds from this mortal world . Virtually speaking , Yoga is not a philosophy but a guided practice .
Yoga implies unity , but unity of what ? Uniting the human soul with the absolute soul i.e called Yoga . It is a process of freeing one’s soul from the fetters and oppression of suffering . On the other hand , Yoga is a process of of separating PURUSA ( Conciousness ) from PRAKRTI ( Matter ) . It is a complicated idea . But if succeeded in this process it can bring about real peace of mind and soul – the both .
MAHARISHI PATANJALI was the first Indian thinker who realized that ‘ man is a system ‘. A microcosm . The universe in miniature . He held that man was consisted of four basic components — mineral , vegetable , animal , and human . 1. Mineral man is considered as a subsystem of the material of the mineral kingdom . 2. Vegetable man is the most mobile product of the vegetable world as vegetable life differs from the life of minerals . 3. Animal man is a higher organization of matter compared to the mineral and vegetable systems as such . To MAHARISHI PATANJALI , animal man can be distinguished from other two due to his mobility . 4. Human man is the highest Subsystem and Synthesis of all the three i.e mineral man , vegetable man , and animal man . Thus , MAHARISHI PATANJALI’S approach to man is more ‘cosmic and individual rather than social’. He , further , propounded the ASTANG theory of Yoga to make man’s mind Supra Concious . They are : YAMA , NIYAM , ASHANAS , PRANAYAM , PRATYAHAR , DHARNA , DHYAN and SAMADHI .
Next comes the VEDANTA Philosophy . An Idealist Philosophy in itself . It is virtually an Objective – Idealist school of thought . The BRAHAM-SUTRA of MAHARISHI BADARAYANA is considered as the earliest work on the VEDANTA Philosophy . The BRAHAM – SUTRA has altogether 555 SUTRAS , a compilation of the isolated ideas of the UPANISADA . The first chapter of book discusses about the theory of BRAHAM , its nature and its relationships with the individual soul . The second chapter of the book describes about the defects of the earlier atomistic Philosophies of CHARVAKAS , JAINISM & BUDDHISM. The third chapter deals about how to attain BRAHAM-VIDYA , its ways and means etc . And the last chapter talks about the actual results of BRAHAM-VIDYA . The principal commentators on BRAHAM-SUTRA are Sankaracharya , Ramanujacharya , Madhwacharya , and Vallabhacharya . However , the main commentator of the BRAHAM-SUTRA was Sankaracharya who is , of the opinion , that the BRAHAM is the ultimate reality and the world is illusion of BRAHAM , a dream of It as such . And there doesn’t exist any difference between BRAHAM and its manifestation i.e the world . But at the same time ‘ there is no identity between them ‘.
Our world is MAYA ( BRAHAM’S SLEEP ) . MAYA is neither real nor unreal , concealing the BRAHAM from our view . We know the world through AVIDYA ( lower wisdom ) but the BRAHAM can be realized through VIDYA ( higher wisdom ) . He , further, holds that AVIDYA disappear when VIDHYA sets in . It is called the ADVAIT Philosophy of Sankaracharya . A 12th century commentator on ADVAIT Philosophy RAMANUJACHARYA , as against Sankaracharya , insisted on VISHISHRA ADVAIT . Thus , the flight of the Indian Philosophy started from PHYSICS and reached METAPHYSICS . And later during BHAKTI movement such flight continued ……etc.
NOTE : THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG IS TEXT BOOKS ……ARBIND KUMAR , THE BLOGGER .