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PAUL HOLBACH ( 1723-1789 ) , a French materialist philosopher and HEGEL , a German idealist philosopher held that the philosophy must be the science of sciences .The Indian philosophy fits in this paradigm . We can start the Indian Philosophy with CHARVAKAS . It is also called LOKAYATIKAS . It is a materialistic philosophy . That means we started our philosophical flights with materialism . It holds that four material elements ( MAHABHUTA ) : earth , fire , water and air are the basis all of our existence . And these elements are active spontaneously . To this school of thought , as against the school of idealist philosophers , ‘consciousness is the property of the immortal soul’ , it clearly states that the consciousness dies with the death of man . That the man is made up of all the above mentioned four physical elements . After death , all the four physical elements return into their respective states and the senses pass into space . It further holds that there exists no supernatural forces . There is nothing like a soul . The law of KARMA is all concocted by the idealist philosophers who wanted to establish VADIC supremacy over the materialist one . The sense perception is the only source of knowledge . It was a Hedeonistic philosophy of ” YAVAT JIVET SHUKHAM JIVET RINAM KRITVA GHRITAM PIVET ” ( As long you live , live with pleasure ; take debt and drink Ghee ) .

NYAYA philosophy is the second philosophical flight that we choose to interpret ourselves and the world phenomenon simultaneously . MAHARISHI GAUTAMA was its propounder . He was also known as AKSAPADA GAUTAMA who composed NYAYA SUTRAS , the basic book of the NYAYA philosophy . The NYAYA philosophy’s sensualism is materialistic in nature . It emphasizes that the sense perception is the only reliable source knowledge . The NYAYA philosophy is concerned with the PRAMANAS ( the instruments of cognition ) . To it , there are four kinds of PRAMANAS : Perception (pratyaksa), Inference ( anumana ) , Comparison ( upamana ) , and Verbal Testimony ( sabda ) . Thus , to the NYAYA philosophy , the cognitive ability ( buddhi ) is true source of knowledge .

VAISESIKA-SUTRA by MAHARISHI KANADA is the source of VAISESIKA philosophy . The VAISESIKA atomistic theory is the basis around which the entire VAISESIKA philosophy revolves . Unlike the Great Greek Philosopher DEMOCRITUS who was of the opinion that ‘ atoms are in eternal and continuous motion ‘ , MAHARISHI KANADA held that atoms , devoid of inner motion , are immutable and inert . He was , of the opinion , that ‘the sensual world is based on atoms existing in space’. As we all know that the four MAHABHUTA— earth , water , fire and air have their own atoms and AKASHA ( ether ) has no atonic structure as such . He , further , says that atoms are indivisible and impenetrable . And their combinations make up the world . To MAHARISHI KANADA each atom is qualitatively different from one other . Thus , the VAISESIKA PHILOSOPHY considered the materiality of the world as reality and even consciousness as the product of the material atoms as such .

The Materialism of the SAMKHYA philosophy is appreciated the world over . The sixth century BC Indian philosopher MAHARISHI KAPILA , the author of the SAMKHYA-SUTRA ( Though the book lost centuries back ) , holds that the world is material in every sense of the word . The MATTER ( Prakrti ) is the basis of every thing in this world . MAHARISHI KAPILA , further , writes that the world was not created . Therefore , there is no creator of the world as such . And the world developed gradually . MAHARISHI KAPILA recognized the cause-and-effect theory of the creation of the world . He , further , holds that ‘ there is continuity in the development of the world from the lower to the higher ‘ form as nothing can be created out of something which does not exist . He is known for using cause-and-effect theory in his philosophy . To him , PRAKRTI has thee GUNAS : Sattva , Rajas , and Tamas . Sattva , to Him , is the potential consciousness ; Rajas is the source of motion ; and Tamas has power to slow down development . Every things in this world is charged with all the three GUNAS . MAHARISHI KAPILA , further , propounded the theory of PURUSA . It is Omniscient and possesses Conciousness . PRAKRTI is the object and PURUSA is subject . PURUSA is passive while PRAKRTI is active . PRAKRTI , thus , is the subject of action. PURUSA , which is devoid of the ability of self-cognition , ultimately cognises itself coming in touch with PRAKRTI . However , Dr. Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan has criticized MAHARISHI KAPILA for deviation from the idealistic philosophy of Ancient India . RAJA RAM MOHAN ROY , another Indian philosopher , has, further , criticized SAMKHYA philosophy for negating the historicity of development as such …..etc .



Published by arbind kumar

I had been a researcher. Presently in service.

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