Lord Charles Edward Cornwallis-V was appointed as the Governor General of the Bengal Presidency in 1786 . He remained there till 1993 . He died in 1805 at Gazipur , India. One can still see Tomb of Lord Cornwallis at Gazipur . A very honest person , the surrendered Commander before George Washington in Yorktown in the year 1781 during the American War of Independence , and served as civil and military Governor of Ireland , was born on 31st December, 1738 at Grosvenor Square, Mayfair, London ( U. K ) . Born in an Aristocratic Family, he got his education in Eton and Cambridge. He joined the British Army in 1757 and after his father’s death in 1762 he became Earl Cornwallis and entered the House of Lords. From 1766 till his death in 1805 he remained Colonel of 33 REGIMENT of Foot .
The Cornwallis Code is a body of legislation enacted finally in 1793 by the British East India Company to bring about overall reforms in the Administration- Judicial , Revenue and Commercial . Such reforms were based on the principle of separation of powers . Lord Cornwallis , very much in influence of the French political philosophers , separated the Revenue Administration from that of the Administration of Justice . The District Collector was divested of Judicial and other powers and given the power of the Revenue Administration only . Instead the post of the District Judge was created who was assigned to preside over the District Civil Court .
Hierarchy of Civil Courts was created . At the lowest level Munsif Court , presided over by the Indian Officer who had power to listen Civil cases of upto the value of Rs. 50 , was established . Then the Court of Registrar , presided over by the European Officers having power to listen the Civil cases upto the value of Rs. 200 , was created . Appeals from these two lower courts would lie in the District Civil Court . Above the District Courts , four Provincial Courts of Appeal at Calcutta, Murshidabad, Dacca and Patna was constituted which apart from listening to Civil Appeals coming from the District Courts were empowered to supervise the District Courts on the basis of their Reports . On the basis of such Reports the Sadr Diwani Adalat could even suspend the District Judge as such . Appeals of the Provincial Courts lied at Sadr Diwani Adalat presided over by the Governor General-in-Council at Calcutta which was empowered to hear Civil Appeals upto Rs. 1000 as such . The King-in-Council could hear appeals of value upto Rs.5000 or above. Qualifications for both— India and European Judges were decided . Cases of Muslims were decided on the basis of the Mohammedan Laws and that’s of Hindus were decided on the basis of the Hindu Laws …..etc.
NOTE:THE SOURCES OF THE BLOG IS TEXT BOOKS AND MY STUDY OF THE PAST …..ARBIND KUMAR , THE BLOGGER .