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LY THANH TONG was the third Emperor of the LY DYNASTY and the eighth ruler of DAI VIET as just after his succession he shortened the Kingdom name from DAI CO VIET to DAI VIET , (literal meaning of which is GREAT VIET) in 1054 AD . He ruled the country from 3rd November , 1054 AD to 1st February , 1072 AD . His personal name was LY NHAT TON and his temple name was THANH TONG . He had eight concubines including Empress THURONG DURONG and Empress LINH NHAN . His son was the Duke of MINH NHAN known as LY NHAN TONG who after his death on 1st February , 1072 AD became his successor . He was the eldest son of Emperor LY THAI TONG and Empress LINH CAM or MAI THI . He was born on 30th March , 1023 AD at CAN DUC palace . He had not lived in the disturbed atmosphere of HOA LU unlike his father and grand father . His father had readily delegated important tasks to him like he led soldiers against rebels , he judged offenders, he presided over the court in his father’s absence . Moreover , he always knew that he would be the next king of DAI VIET . In 1033 AD , he was conferred Crown Prince after his father ascended the throne as Prince KHAI HOANG . When he was enthroned as a king , he promoted the agricultural development reducing some of harsh laws . He built many CONFUCIANIST and BUDDHIST Institutions . Most notably of them was the first Temple of Literature in VIETNAM built in 1072 AD . He also expanded the VIETNAMESE territory by several successful wars with CHAMPA . On the other hand , LY THANH TONG dared to claim imperial status , which for the CHINESE was a direct challenge that prelude to the SONG-VIET war in 1070 AD .


Emperor LY THANH TONG incorporated both SINIC and INDIC elements in his court . He ordered all the court officials who used to visit frequently in his court to wear prevailing CHINESE style headgear and footwear in1059 AD . Ten of junior Royal servants and scribes were promoted to Law Officers in 1067 AD . But unfortunately he had no son at all even at the age of 40 in 1063 AD . So he was quite anxious for his successor . He traveled to PHAP VAN PAGODA about thirty KM to the east of THANG LONG . It was an ancient major BUDDHIST temple in THANH KHOUNG commune ( BAC NINH PROVINCE ) . The temple was historically marked as the ancient settlement of LUY LAU . LUY LAU was the major centre of BUDDHISM in VIETNAM . The PAGODA and the temple were of second century AD constructed in 187 AD to 226 AD . It was the stopping point for both Northern ( MAHAYANA ) and Southern ( THERAVADA ) BUDDHIST pilgrims and monks . On his way to the PAGODA , he was passing through a village called THO LOI where he saw a girl of common origin leaning on an orchid tree . But the girl , unlike other girls of the village, was not paying attention at all towards the monarch despite the fact that he was well escorted by the eye-catching Royal Guards while on his way . This impressed Emperor LY THANH TONG very much . So he decided to choose the girl as his concubine with the title as Lady Y LAN . On 25th January 1066 AD , LadyY LAN gave birth to the first child of Emperor LY THANH TONG named as LY CAN DUC . Right after the birth , LY CAN DUC was entitled as crown prince of the LY DYNASTY . And Lady Y LAN was granted the title of IMPERIAL CONCUBINE . To celebrate the event , Emperor LY THANH TONG changed his era name from CHURONG THANH GIA KHANH to LONG CHURONG THIEN TO and he gave out General amnesty for prisoners . His second son was born on 1068 AD from Lady Y LAN named as Prince MINH NHAN VUONG .


Emperor LY THANH TONG was not much engaged with either the BUDDHIST or spirit world like his father and grandfather . However , in 1057 AD he erected statue of BUDDHA in THANG LONG as the reincarnation of a pantheon of spirits . He also ordered to construct a temple called PHAN VURONG DE THICH for the worship of the HINDU God INDRA who was called in VIETNAM as DE THICH . During that period itself , he also constructed a royal cult linked HINDU-BUDDHIST King of the God INDRA and BRAHMA (in VIETNAM call PHAN VURONG ). Every year the Emperor used to go to worship the shrine of INDRA . He had golden statues of HINDU God BRAHMA and SHANKARA to worship at temples of THIEN PHUC and THIEN THO . He also went to the mount of TAN VIEN in early 1072 AD to worship MOUNTAIN SPIRIT . TAN VIEN mountain in the VIETNAMESE mythology was the home of the mountain God SON TINH . SON TINH was considered as one of the four immortals in the traditional VIETNAMESE mythology .







Emperor LY THAI TONG or LY PHAT MA was the second monarch of the LY DYNASTY of DAI CO VIET . He ruled the Kingdom from 1028 AD to 1054 AD . Since the tenth century , he was considered as the most successive VIETNAMESE Ruler . He was born in 1000 AD in HOA LU , NINH BINH during the reign of the Emperor LE HOAN . His father , LY CONG UAN was an official of the Royal Court that time . His mother LE THI PHAT NGAN , was the daughter of LE HOAN . When LY CONG UAN became the new ruler of DAI CO VIET , LY THAI TONG was only nine years old . Now the capital was shifted from HOA LU to THANG LONG . As a Crown Prince , he was marching with his army toward south through THANH HOA , he encountered the spirit of MOUNT TRONG DONG , which promised him to help in his campaign . As a result , LY THAI TONG successfully invaded CHAMPA . He killed the CHAM commander and destroyed half of his army . He ascended the throne in 1028 AD . At the beginning of his reign , he had fully relied on the officers working under his father as they helped him in putting down uprising by two of his brothers contesting for succession . And he personally led his expedition against his third brother at HOA LU and got success . But when he consolidated his power and became more secured , he tried to avoid his officials’ advice and demonstrated his unconventional style of governance . He promoted one of his favorite concubines to the royal status which provoked a rebellion . But that was crushed by he , himself . He captured the leader of rebellion called NONG QUANFU from the northern mountains and publicly executed him at THANG LONG . And even in the spring ploughing ceremony , he altogether rejected his officials’ advice and ploughed the land himself .


In 1042 AD , LY THAI TONG created a new code called MINH DAO LAWS . He was inspired by the TANG CODE of CHINA . The TANG CODE was a penal code which was established by the TANG DYNASTY in CHINA . It was supplemented by civil statutes and regulations . It became the basis of Dynastic CODE later not only in CHINA but in many other countries of the EAST ASIA . The CODE virtually synthesized legalistic and CONFUCIAN interpretations of law . MINH DAO LAWS were written by officials appointed for this purpose by LY THAI TONG . Though MINH DAO LAW book has not survived , nine edicts dated within a few months of its publication have yet survived . He also attempted to reform the system of justice and prisons at THANG LONG by placing it under the protection of the cult of a tenth century hero . He also started reforms in the government . NUNG TRI CAO , the leader of the NUNG clan in the CAO BANG Province , proclaimed the state of DALI , the VIETNAMESE captured him and held him at THANG LONG for several years . Following this incident in the next year , the King ordered the VIETNAMESE (DAI CO VIET) court officials to ‘ compose a rhythmic narrative ‘ in order to publicize his achievement of an ‘extraordinary supernatural event’.


In 1049 AD , one day Emperor LY THAI TONG dreamed of AVALOKITESVARA while sleeping . The very second day , he ordered the construction of ONE PILLOR PAGODA OF AVALOKITESVARA in THANG LONG , which still survives in HANOI . The ONE PILLOR PAGODA is a historic BUDDHA temple in the central BA DINH district near THANG LONG citadel . The most important part of this architectural complex is that the building is laid down in one pillar . The original PAGODA was built in 1049 AD . But with some addition it was perfected in 1105 AD . Alongside the PERFUME TEMPLE , it is considered as one of the most iconic temples of VIETNAM . The story of construction of the ONE PILLOR PAGODA is not less interesting . According to the court records , Emperor LY THAI TONG was childless . One day he dreamed that he met the BODHISATTVAS AVALOKITESVARA , who handed him a baby son while seated on the LOTUS FLOWER . LY THAI TONG then married a peasant girl that he had met . She bore him a son . So in gratitude of this , the King constructed the temple in 1049 AD . A Monk called THIEN TUE advised him to build the temple by erecting a pillar in the middle of the LOTUS POND , similar to one he saw in the dream . Before the PAGODA was opened , prayers were held for the longevity of the monarch . On the birthday of GAUTAMA BUDDHA , an annual ceremony on the occasion of VESAK was celebrated throughout the LY DYNASTY era . A BUDDHA-BATHING ceremony was celebrated every year by the monarch , monks and laymen alike . On this Occasion , the monarch used to free a bird which was followed by the people . Since then LY THAI TONG began to seek solutions of life through religion . A staunch MAHAYANA BUDDHIST , he ordered silversmiths to decorate more þhan 1000 statues and more than 1000 paintings of BUDDHA . He was engaged with the BUDDHIST community more directly than his father . Those BUDDHIST MONKS were emanating from INDIA and CHINA . He sought to honour their varied opinions . HUE SINH , a local BUDDHIST , whom the King had brought from Mountain North , was made the court teacher . LY THAI TONG also brought the spirit cults into the capital . He was particularly close to the cult of spirit of the Mountain of the BRONZE DRUM . So in front of this spirit , he had courtiers swear their yearly blood oath of allegiance . He died in 1054 AD . A few months before his death , he transferred the governing job to his son LY NHAT TON (LY THAN TONG) .






Emperor LY CONG UAN abandoned the scheme of the previous government of Emperor DINH BO LINH ( 968 AD to 979 AD ) which had plan to divide the plain into ‘Ten Circuits’ . He replaced it by twenty four routes . Though these were not administrative jurisdictions , yet they were itineraries designating various localities . For the purpose of garrisons and patrols , he organized the southern provinces into military outposts . There was no centralized salary distribution system for the officials , instead they were entirely depended upon local resources for their salaries . The soldiers also received some largesse as they were expected to do some farming of their own . The local village communities used to send some of their resources to the local lords who out of them used to send some of them to the throne as tributes . This sort of administrative system , to some extent , resembled that of the South-East ASIAN MANDALA system . Emperor LY CONG UAN raised a large army in 1011 AD . He attacked rebels in the southern provinces of THAHN HOA and NGHE AN . He wasted there for two years burning villager and capturing local leaders . And while he was returning by sea in 1012 AD , he faced a great storm threatening to sink his boat . Then he realized that a divine judgment upon him had come for the violence and misery he had brought upon so many people in the southern provinces . Similarly, LY CONG UAN sent soldiers into northern mountains of modern HA GIANG province to pacify HANI people who had allied with the DALI Kingdom of YUNNAN province of CHINA .


Emperor LY CONG UAN brought about reforms in the tax system in 1013 AD by creating six types of tax classifications which were as follows : 1. Tax on fishing and seafood production ; 2. Tax on agricultural production ; 3. Tax on logging , wood and masonry ; 4. Tax on salt production ; 5. Tax on luxury goods production like — taxes on ivory , silk , precious metals etc. ; and 6. Tax on fruits and vegetables production . These classifications of taxes enabled the Royal Court to effectively and efficiently collect taxes . In 1016 AD , when a severe earthquake occurred , Emperor LY CONG UAN prayed to the Gods who were in charge of the mountains surrounding the capital . He journeyed around the Kingdom both to propitiate its disparate genies and co-opt them by having them declared himself to them .


In 1010 AD , the SONG DYNASTY of CHINA recognized LY CONG UAN without much delay . The SONG Emperor conferred upon him the usual title of vassalage . In the same year , Emperor LY CONG UAN caught thirteen persons of DICH LAO ( BANDIT ) ethnicity and presented the captives to the CHINESE Court . At the same time in 1014 AD , he sent a mission to CHINA . He presented sixty horses to the SONG COURT as gifts . He also notified the SONG Court that he had subdued a HANI community . The SONG DYNASTY of CHINA , that time , was preoccupied with maintaining internal stability . It was trying to recover from past defeats/skirmishes with the LIAO DYNASTY and the western XIA . The LIAO DYNASTY , also known as the KHITAN Empire , was the Imperial Dynasty of CHINA which existed between 916 AD to 1125 AD , ruled over Northeast CHINA , the MONGOLIAN Platue , the northern part of KOREAN PENINSULA , southern part of the RUSSIAN Far East and the northern tip of the North CHINA Plain . In 1004 AD , the LIAO DYNASTY launched an Imperial expedition against the Northern SONG DYNASTY . After heavy fighting and large casualty between the two Empires , both sides worked out treaty of CHANYUAN. And it was , for approximately 120 years , heralding an era of peace and stability between the two powers . Similarly , the Western XIA or the XI XIA was a TENGUT-led BUDDHIST Imperial Dynasty of CHINA from 1038 AD to 1227 AD . It had extensive stance among the other Empires of the LIAO , SONG and JIN . Sweet and sour relationship went on between the SONG and the Western XIA for long . All these incidents provided an opportunity for the DAI CO VIET to have better relationship with SONG DYNASTY which the latter willingly accepted .






LY CONG UAN or LY THAI TO was the founder of the LY DYNASTY who ruled DAI CO VIET from 1009 AD to 1028 AD . He was the 6th Ruler of the Kingdom . His father’s name was HIEN KHANH VUONG and his mother’s name was MINH DUC THAI HUA PHAM THI about whom not much was recorded historically . He was born in CO PHAP village , TU SON in the BAC NINH Province in the RED RIVER DELTA of VIETNAM in 974 AD . According to the VIETNAMESE Cronicles , his mother PHAM THAI gave him up to the most imminent BUDDHIST Patriarch of his time LY KANH VAN at the age of three . LY CONG UAN was educated by LY KANH VAN and he became a devout BUDDHIST , a historian and a soldier . He was appointed as a royal minor official who by dint of his hard labour ultimately bestowed with the title TA THAN VE DIEN TIEN CHI HUY SU which literally means the Commander of the Palace’s Left Flank . It was the most important position within royal guards . As we know that the last king of the LE DYNASTY , LE LONG DINH developed hemorrhoids/piles in 1009 AD , and he had to lie down while listening to officials’ reports in the Royal Court . On the other hand , the monks of GIAO launched a propaganda campaign that brought about belief in the masses that LY CONG UAN was inevitably becoming King of DAI CO VIET after LE LONG DINH as the King was incapacitated by declining health . LE LONG DINH died in November 1009 AD under the wrath of the people due to brutality and cruelty he hurled upon them during his reign . DAO CAM MOC , a royal official , and Patriarch VAN HANH by using their political influences enthroned their trusted disciple LY CONG UAN without any resistance at all . Thus , the reign of the LE DYNASTY ended . And an era of LY DYNASTY started .


The first thing LY CONG UAN did , after becoming King of DAI CO VIET , was that the Royal Court was relocated from HOA LU to the sight of DAI LA , the modern day HANOI in 1010 AD . He changed the capital from HOA LU to DAI LA due to two reasons which he profoundly mentioned in the edict : 1. Dai La was the earlier capital in the rich Red River Delta ; and 2. He saw/believed that Dai La was a place ‘between Heaven and Earth where coiling dragon and the crouching tiger lie , and his capital would last 10,000 years’. He renamed the place as THANG LONG which literally means the ‘ ascending dragon ‘ as when LY CONG UAN’S boat docked at the new capital , a dragon , symbol of the sovereign authority , was said to have soared above his head . Amazingly , the royal city of THANG LONG was constructed with architectural design in such a way that the urban centre encompassed the royal city . The Throne Room Palace faced South was located within a Dragon Courtyard . The Crown Prince used to live in the Eastern Palace outside the city walls . Palaces and offices were made up of timber. On the top of the NUNG hill was located CAN NGUYEN Palace where the King used to hold audience . And by 1010 AD , altogether eleven Palaces were built in THANG LONG .


As a BUDDHIST MONK , LY CONG UAN promoted BUDDHISM as the national religion . He supported the BUDDHIST clergymen and institutions . He also donated a sizable amount to build pagodas throughout his Kingdom . Initially , he built eight BUDDHIST temples in the TIEN DU area . He also built three other BUDDHIST temples around the capital region . For reading and reciting the BUDDHIST scriptures , he built a temple in 1024 AD . All these BUDDHIST scriptures he got on request from the SONG Court of CHINA . To establish the cultural basis of his authority in DAI CO VIET , he showed an interest in establishing proper relationships with the supernatural power also . The local spirits that had long dominated more distant regions of the Kingdom i.e : 1. the spirit of the TONG SISTERS from the western delta ; 2. the earth genie of PHU DONG north of the capital ; and 3. the mountain of Bronze Drum God from THANH HOA in AI to the south — all were relocated to the capital and housed there in temples especially dedicated to them . These spirits were ‘symbols of regional powers’ . And Pacification of these local and regional spirits involved the extention of monarchical authority to the region of DAI CO VIET . Thereafter he began to withdraw from public affairs . In 1025 AD , VAN HANH died . He had been LY CONG UAN’S teachers , mentor and just like father figure . Thus , his royal personality was in some degree animated throughout his life as an extension of VAN HANH’S expectation of him .


TO BE CONTINUED ……………………..




LE LONG DINH , also known as LE NGOA TRIEU , was the last king of the early LE DYNASTY of the Kingdom of DAI CO VIET . He ruled the Kingdom from 1005 AD to 1009 AD . After killing his brother LE LONG VIET, he took over the throne and named his era as CANH THUY . His mysterious death at the age of 24 led the fall of Early LE DYNASTY . Then all the power was seized by House of LY . LE LONG DINH was the fifth son of Emperor LE HOAN who was born on 15th November 986 AD . But his mother appeared to be a concubine whose name was DIEU NU . And thus , he was the half brother of the DUKE of NAM PHONG , LE LONG VIET . In 1005 AD , LE DAI HANH ( LE HOAN ) died at TRUONG XUAN PALACE . The Crown Prince LE LONG VIET contested for the Crown with the other three brothers— LE LONG TICH , LE LONG KINH and LE LONG DINH . All of them used forces and fought for eight months continuously . LE LONG VIET defeated LE LONG TICH in October 1005 AD . LE LONG TICH fled to CHAMPA where he was killed by the local people at CO LA Estuary . And LE LONG VIET proclaimed himself as Emperor of DAI CO VIET with title TRUNG TONG HOANG DE means the Emperor of TRUNG TONG . However , after reigning for three days , he was killed by the intruders deployed by LE LONG DINH . And nobody remained in the palace to take over the dead body of LE LONG VIET except the future Ruler LY CONG UAN who later on founded the LY DYNASTY in DAI CO VIET after the death of the Emperor LE LONG DINH in 1009 AD . In this way LE LONG DINH took over the throne in the winter of 1005 AD .


In 1007 AD , LE LONG DINH ordered his brother to give a White Pangolin as a gift to the SONG DYNASTY in exchange to get BUDDHIST SUTRA and other 9 CHINESE classics like : 1. I CHING ; 2. CLASSIC OF POETRY ; 3. BOOK OF DOCUMDNTS ; 4. BOOK OF RITES ; 5. SPRING ANNALS ; 6. AUTUMN ANNALS ; 7. CLASSIC OF FILIAL PIETY ; 8. ANALECTS ; and 9. MENCIUS . These were the nine classics of CHINESE CIVILIZATION . SONG Emperor approved the DAI VIET proposal and gave it to the VIETNAMESE Ambassador . All these books for the first time came to VIETNAM under the reign of LE LONG DINH . With high self-esteem and respect to the tributary activities of DAI CO VIET , SONG Emperor refused to invade DAI CO VIET despite the advice of the CHINESE MANDARINS to the SONG Emperor after the death of The Emperor LE HOAN in 1005 AD .


As per the COMPLETE ANNALS OF DAI VIET , LE LONG DINH was one of the most brutal and sadistic Rulers of VIETNAM . That’s why his reign was called as the reign of terror and thus he was compared to the ROMAN Emperors like CALIGULA and COMMODUS so far as their traits of excess cruelty were concerned . LE LONG DINH excess of cruelties could be enumerated as follows : 1. He used to execute innocent people for entertaining purposes such as tying them with hay to burn to death ; 2. He used to call an executioner from SONG CHINA to gradually mutilate victims to death slowly by using blunt bladed swords and axes and the Emperor was said to have delighted in the deaths of his victims ; 3. The war prisoners were ordered to take them to the riverside to be cramed into cages along the river banks and when the high tides came in at dusk , the Emperor would watch them drown slowly ; 4. The Emperor sometimes stuck livestock such as pigs or cows to death for feasts as such ; 5. At court banquets he killed cats and served them to his guests and court officials and make them to eat the cats ; and 6. The Emperor , afterwards , would play around with their severed heads in front of the court audience for frightening them and reducing their chances of questioning his audacity . According to the historians in DAI VIET history , he had contacted hemorrhoids/piles , that’s why he often used to hold court while lying down . He held the throne of DAI CO VIET for four short years until he died in a mysterious circumstances in 1009 AD at the age of 24 . His son SA was still a child , so under the management of the court officials , LY CONG UAN became the Emperor of DAI CO VIET . Thus , the rule of LY DYNASTY started in the country .






LE HOAN or LE DAI HANH was the third ruler of the DAI CO VIET Kingdom from 981 AD to 1005 AD . Under the reign of Emperor DINH BO LINH , he was the GENERALISSIMO of the DAI CO VIET army. GENERALISSIMO was the military rank officer of the highest degree . He used to be superior to the Field Marshal having five-star ranks in the state and he used to command a ten thousand strong men army of DAI CO VIET . After the death Emperor DINH BO LINH , LE HOAN became Regent of DINH’S successor six-year-old DINH TOAN in late 979 AD . Following rebellions in the Kingdom , LE HOAN deposed the boy King DINH TOAN , married his mother , Queen DOUNG VAN NGA , and became ruler of DAI CO VIET in 1980 AD . Apart from Empress DOUNG VAN NGA , he had other wives like Empress PHUNG CAN CHI LY , Empress THUAN THANH MINH DAO , Empress TRINH QUAC and Empress PHAM . He had altogether 73 sons out of which 66 from concubines . He was born in 941 AD in AI Province . He rose to power as a General of HOA LU Warlord DINH BO LINH . After defeating all the eleven warlords in 968 AD , DINH BO LINH founded the DAI CO VIET Kingdom with LE HOAN as commander of the military of the Kingdom with title ‘General of Ten Circuits’ as he had fended off north invasion in 981 AD and led a seaborne invasion of the southern CHAMPA Kingdom in 982 AD .


As we know that in late 979 AD , Emperor DINH BO LINH and his son DINH LIEN were slain by an official of the kingdom who was eunuch named as DO THICH while sleeping in the courtyard of the palace . Following the death of the Emperor DINH BO LINH and Prince DINH LIEN , his six year old son Prince DINH TOAN was enthroned as the King of DAI CO VIET . However , Queen DOUNG VAN NGA wanted LE HOAN to become the Ruler as it would better for the Kingdom in view of growing rebellions and threat from the northern SONG DYNASTY OF CHINA . So , DINH TOAN gave up the crown while LE HOAN took over the power with the reign name THIEN PHUC . He established five Queens as minor wives while Queen DOUNG VAN NGA remained as his first Lady . A part from that he appointed his family members including his brother and his sons to rule over other parts of the Kingdom . LE HOAN maintained the BUDDHIST patriarch KHOUNG VIET as the great preceptor in his court while a CHINESE named as HONGJIAN was appointed as the history expert of the court . Five years after a drought in 982 AD , he held a ROYAL PLOUGHING CEREMONY on two rice fields in 987 AD and put a pit of gold in each field . He also built the MAHAYANA NHAT temple in HOA LU in 995 AD . He left Inscriptions on it citing verses from the SURANGAMA SUTRA . The SURANGAMA SUTRA is a MAHAYANA BUDDHIST SUTRA that has been especially influential in CHAN BUDDHISM , a CHINESE school of MAHAYANA BUDDHISM became popular during TANG and SONG DYNASTIES .


The rebellions in DIA VIET attracted attention of the CHINESE SONG RULER , TAIZONG . He ordered HOU RENBAO to move into DAI VIET territory . In early 981 AD , the CHINESE navy under LIU CHENG defeated LE HOAN’S military on the BACH DANG RIVER . It caused killing of 1,000 DAI VIET sailors and seized 200 junks . On the other hand , HOU RENBAO urged his troops to March forward , but they moved little late until LIU CHENG finally arrived . Now the SONG land forces and navy regrouped at DA LA village to move forward to HOA BO . LE HOAN pretended to surrender . But he tricked HOU RENBAO forces to come near . Then he killed HOU RENBAO and massacred his troops . This resulted into the forced retreat of the SONG army . Their Generals were punished with summary execution in KAIFENG for military failures . And SONG DYNASTY RULER sent three envoys respectively in 986 AD , 990 AD and 998 AD to DAI VIET to normalize the relations between the two countries .

PARMESVARAVARMAN-I , the king of CHAMPA , attacked DAI VIET in 979 AD in the name of restoring NGO NHAT KHANH . (NGO NHAT KHANH was a VIETNAMESE warlord during the period of 12 warlords . However , KHANH was defeated by DINH BO LINH in 968 AD .) But the King of CHAMPA was stopped by a typhoon . The next year Emperor LE HOAN sent an embassy to CHAMPA . But King PARMESVARAVARMAN-I of CHAMPA detained him which annoyed LE HOAN who led an army to storm the south and liked King PARMESVARAVARMAN-I in the battle and sacked INDRAPURA . His Prince JAYA INDRAVARMAN-IV sought refuse in the extreme south . But LUU KE TONG , a VIETNAMESE officer in the CHAM army , seized power in CHAMPA who resisted LE HOAN’S attempt to remove him from power .

In 1005 AD , Emperor LE HOAN died at the age of 64 . A civil war for succession between his sons erupted . His 20 years old fifth son LE LONG DINH seized the throne after murdering his older brother LE LONG VIET who only held the crown in three days and ruled the country for next four years .






DINH BO LINH was the founding Emperor of the DINH Dynasty of VIETNAM declaring independence from the HAN Dynasty of South CHINA . He ruled VIETNAM from 968 AD to 979 AD . He ensured political unity of VIETNAM in the 10th century by unifying VIETNAM by defeating all the twelve rebellious warlords and became the first Emperor of VIETNAM . Upon his accession to the throne, he renamed the country as DAI CO VIET . DINH BO LINH was also known as DINH TIEN HOAN . He was born in 924 AD in HOA LU . His father DINH CONG TRU had served both— DURONG DINH NGHE and NGO QUYEN as the Governor of HOAN . As per the CHINESE records , DINH BO LINH succeeded his father as the DUKE OF HOAN . His father died when he was still a child . Then he lived with his mother and other family members in a holy temple near a mountain in HOA LU . DINH BO LINH had a sister also whose name was DINH QUE HURONG . In 940s the young DINH BO LINH emrged as a leader of the village youths at a very young age . The traditional folk tell says that he then collected wood for his mother who had slaughtered a pig and put on a feast . Villagers sensed a great future leader in him . So they decided to follow him now before it was too late . They delivered their youths to DINH BO LINH and set up a base on his uncle lands . But his uncle was no longer eager to surrender his lands to DINH . So , DINH BO LINH sent his friends to attack on his uncle . And his uncle was trapped under a collapsed bridge and DINH’S friends were about to kill him , but they saw two yellow dragons flying above . His uncle withdrew and later submitted to him . A historian like OLIVER W. WOLTERS has considered this story as a ‘man of prowess’ possessing the ‘soul stuff’ befitting a chief . On the other hand when the long dominating CHINESE TANG DYNASTY in the entire region was in the process of disintegration and in the battle of BACH DANG RIVER in 938 AD , the warlord NGO QUYEN defeated the southern HAN forces , the first VIETNAMESE polity emerged in the region . But NGO DYNASTY was too weak to effectively unify VIETNAM . Upon the death of NGO King in 965 AD , DINH BO LINH seized the power and founded a new Kingdom , the capital of which was his home district of HOA LU . To claim his legitimacy to the throne , he married a woman of NGO family .


In the early years of his reign , DINH BO LINH was quite careful in ascertaining his relationship with the southern HAN . But in 968 AD , he took a provocative step of adopting the tile of Emperor and in this way declaring his independence from the CHINESE overlordship . He founded the DINH DYNASTY and called his Kingdom DAI CO VIET . When the powerful SONG DYNASTY annexed the southern HAN in 971 AD , he realized the importance of subjugation under the SONG DYNASTY , which due to its military powers by now , had been a dominant force in the region . The SONG DYNASTY was an Imperial Dynasty of CHINA that began in 960 AD and lasted until 1279 AD . Emperor TAIZU OF SONG founded this Dynasty by usurping the throne of later ZHOU . The SONG conquered the rest of the ten Kingdoms , thus , ending the five Dynasties and the ten Kingdoms . Realizing the might of this powerful Dynasty , DINH BO LINH of DAI CO VIET ingratiated himself in 972 AD with the SONG DYNASTY by sending a tribute mission to demonstrate his affiliation with the SONG DYNASTY . He sent cloths , rhinoceros horns , elephant tusks and perfumed tea to the court of the SONG DYNASTY . Subsequently , the Emperor TAIZU OF SONG DYNASTY recognized the DAI CO VIET Ruler as GIAO CHI meaning by a theoretical relationship of vassalage in submission to the Empire . On the other hand , DINH BO LINH obtained a non-aggression agreement in exchange for tributes payable to the CHINESE Court every three years .


In October 979 AD , a eunuch called DO THICH killed the Emperor DINH BO LINH and the Prince DINH LIEN when they were sleeping in their palace at night , the General of the Emperor DINH BO LINH , LE HOAN took over power as Regent and five-year-old DINH TOAN occupied the throne . But rebellions erupted in the entire empire . At this juncture , the Emperor of the SONG DYNASTY sent troops under HOU RENBAO to restore the throne of the young prince . However , in view of the threat of continuous CHINESE intervention in the affairs of DIA VIET , the court officials proposed LE HOAN to be the Ruler of DAI VIET . They urged him to become King to establish a more stable government . In 980 AD , the Court officials and Generals gathered at HOA LU and Empress DURONG VAN NGA brought out the Emperor’s robes to put on LE HOAN, thus offered him the throne of DIA VIET . In this way the rule of DINH DYNASTY ended and transferred the power to LE family . He ruled the Kingdom of DAI VIET from 981 AD to 1005 AD .






DAI VIET or ANNAM , centred around the present-day HANOI and Northern VIETNAM , was the Kingdom of VIETNAM apart from CHAMPA from the 10th century AD to the early 19th century AD . Its earlier name was DAI CO VIET (968 AD to 1054 AD) which was established by a VIETNAMESE ruler called DINH BO LINH after the ending of the anarchy of the 12 warlords . The period of the 12 warlords was a period of chaos and civil war in the history of VIETNAM . It was the period from 944 AD to 968 AD . The four of the warlords were from CHINA . With the unification war of VIETNAM by DINH BO LINH , the DINH Dynasty was established . The name of those four CHINESE warlords were as follows : 1. DO CANH THAC ; 2. KIEU CONG HAN ; 3. NGUYEN THU TIEP ; and 4. NGUYEN SIEU . The name of the rest of eight warlords were as follows : 1. NGO XUONG XI ( of Thanh Hoa Province ) ; 2. TRAN LAM ( of Thai Binh Province ) ; 3. NGUYEN KHOAN ( of Vinh Phuc Province ) ; 4. NGO NHAT KHANH ( of SON Tay ) ; 5. LY KHUE ( of Bac Ninh Province ) ; 6. LA DURONG ( of Hung Yen Province ) ; 7. KIEU THUAN ( of Phu Tho Province ) ; and 8. PHAM BACH HO ( of Hung Yen Province ) . However , the recent findings suggests that there were 13th Lord also whose name was DUONG HUY who ruled a region to the South-East of CO LAO . DINH BO LINH was said to have hold some posts in HOAN CHAU . But he lost his positions and went back to HOA LU in 950 AD . He became there an abortive son and subordinate general to TRAN LAM . Considering him as a reasonable leader who could rule the Province , TRAM LAM retired and gave all power to him . DINH BO LINH who was a man of courage and valor led the army to occupy HOA LU which later on became the national capital under his reign afterward .


The adopted son of LORD TRAN LAM , who ruled the region of BO HAI KHAU ( NOW THAI BINH PROVINCE ) DINH BO LINH succeeded LAM after his death . He defeated all the eleven major warlords in 968 AD and reunified the nation under his rule . In the same year he ascended the throne . He proclaimed himself Emperor with the title DINH TIEN HOANG and established the DINH DYNASTY . And he renamed the nation as DAI CO VIET . He moved the capital to HOA LU . Now-a-days it is known as NINH BINH . DINH BO LINH was respected as VAN THANG VUONG ( the King of ten thousand victories ) . He began by defeating LA XU BINH in CO LOA . The battle with DO KANH THAC in DO DONG GIANG took over a year until DINH BO LINH seized the fortress and DO KANH GIANG and DO KANH THAC was killed . Ìn TAY PHU LIET , NGUYEN SIEU lost four of his Generals in the first battle with DINH BO LINH . In the second battle , he split his army in half to seek backup . However , their ships were wrecked . DINH BO LINH commanded his soldiers to set fire to the camps of enemies’ remaining army . NGUYEN SIEU died shortly . By the beginning of 968 AD , DINH BO LINH after defeating and killing NGUYEN THU TIEP , KIEU CONG HAN , NGUYEN KHOAN , KIEU THUAN , LY KHUE and LA DURONG, ended the battle and DINH BO LINH successfully united the divided region of DAI VIET . He also convinced other warlords like PHAM BACH HO , NGO XUONG and NGO NHAT KHANH to surrendered and joined his army .


The history of DAI VIET could be divided into the rule of eight Dynasties . They were as follows : 1. DINH ( 968 AD to 980 AD ) ; 2. EARLY LY ( 980 AD to 1009 AD ) ; 3. LY ( 1009 AD to 1226 AD ) ; 4. TRAN ( 1226 AD to 1400 AD ) ; 5. HO ( 1400 AD to 1407 AD ) ; 6. LATER LE ( 1428 AD to 1789 AD ) ; 7. MAC ( 1527 AD to 1677 AD ) ; and TAY SON ( 1778 AD to 1802 AD ) . For the short period , it was briefly intrupted by the HO Dynasty ( 1400 AD to 1407 AD ) who changed the name of the country as DAI NGU for the short period . And the fourth eŕa of Northern Domination started when the region was ruled as JIAOZHI by the MINGD YNASTY from 1407 AD to 1427 AD . Again the history of DAI VIET could be divided ìnto periods : 1. Unified Empire which lasted from 960 AD to 1533 AD ; and 2. Fragmented DAI VIET from 1533 AD to 1802 AD when there were more than one Dynasty and noble clans simultaneously ruling from their own domains . And from 13th to 18th century , the border of DAI VIET expanded to encompass the territories and regions that resembled VIETNAM of today . This region lies along the South CHINA sea from the Gulf of TONKIN to the Gulf of THAILAND . DAI VIET emerged in 960s as a hereditary monarchy with MAHAYANA BUDDHISM as state religion . And it lasted for six centuries . From 16th century onwards it was gradually weakened and decentralized into many sub-kingdoms . However , it was briefly unified by the TAY SON brothers in 1786 AD . It was divided among themselves by the TAY SON brothers in 1787 AD . However , again DAI VIET was reunified after TRINH-NGUYEN war which ended in NGUYEN victory and destruction of TAY SON . In this way DAI VIET was reunified after three hundred years of fragmentation . But from 968 AD to 1804 AD , DAI VIET acquired significant power in the region which annexed CHAMPA slowly and some parts of KHMER territory gradually . And thus , the VIETNAMESE territories expanded to the south and west also .






CHAMPA was formed in about 192 AD . It was during the break up of the HAN DYNASTY of CHINA that the HAN official in charge of the region established his own kingdom around the area of the present day city of HUE . Initially the area was inhibited mainly by wild tribes . They involved in incessant struggles with the CHINESE colonies in TONKIN . Later on they came under INDIAN cultural influence and decentralized their country into four regions all named after INDIAN name of places . They were : 1. AMARAVATI ( QUANG NAM ) ; 2. VIJAYA ( BINH DINH ) ; 3. KAUTHARA ( NHA TRANG ) ; and 4. PANDURANGA ( PHAN RANG ) . They were all concentrated along small coastal enclaves . Though historians and anthropologists vary on the question of races of ancient CHAMPA , yet most of them are of the opinion that the CHAM and KIRATA people were the ancient inhabitants of CHAMPA . About CHAM , a CHINESE writer has written that they were of black colour having deep eyes and thick hair . They used to wear LUNGI in the loin and no upper garment at all . Common men remained ware foot and rich people used to wear leather shoes . Both — men and women used to shape their hair . They used to wear earrings in their ears . In the fifth century another CHINESE writer has written that in one part CHAM people used to walk ware foot , wore earrings in their ears and boys and girls used to roam naked without any hesitation as such . In scorching heat of summer season they never used to cover their body and roaming in the sun heat . That’s why their colour became black and they used to consider it as a gift of the nature . According to SCHUMIDT , the people of similar race that of the MUNDA tribes found in the CENTRAL INDIA and CHHOTA NAGPUR resions inhibited in the entire INDOCHINA and in the Island of South-East ASIA . They came there through the INDIAN states like ASSAM and MANIPUR .


R.C. MAJUMDAR , a historian from INDIA in his book CHAMPA , has written that like INDIA the society of CHAMPA/ANNAM was divided into four VARNA i.e BRAHMIN , KSHATRIYA , VAISYA and SHUDRA . BRAHMIN were respected in the society and killing of BRAHMIN was considered as very bad . GOTRA and VANSA were considered during the time of marriage . Marriage were performed by BRAHMINS . It was celebrated like a religious ceremony . Like in INDIA , SATI System was prevailing in the society . It was a traditionally accepted System in which wife had to be self-immolated on the pyre of her dead husband . Like INDIAN HINDU months , the year started with the month of CHAITRA . Like INDIA the month started with new moòn . Similarly like HINDUS , dead body was immolated/burnt in fire . Almost all Inscriptions in CHAMPA were written in SANSKRIT language . But somewhere they were written in local CHAM language also . People of higher class used to study SANSKRIT . King BHADRAVARMAN had knowledge of all the four VEDAS . King INDRAVARMAN-III had perfect knowledge of the INDIAN PHILOSOPHY . Similarly , King JAYA INDRAVARMAN DEV VII had knowledge of the VYAKARNA ( GRAMMAR ) OF PANINI , the INDIAN ASTROLOGY and MAHAYANA BUDDHISM . Indian Epics like RAMAYANA AND MAHABHARATAS were also read ìn CHAMPA/ANNAM . Name of SRI RAM , SRI KRISHNA , LORD VISHNU and LORD SHIVA could be found in the Inscriptions of CHAMPA . Temple of BHAGAVATI PO NAGAR could be seen as an impact of INDIAN culture on CHAMPA . Of course , somewhere traces of CHINESE culture could also be observed . But ancient CHAMPA was mostly under influence of the INDIAN culture .


The CHAMS had a seafaring culture due to their coastal location . They controlled the trade in spices and silk between CHINA , INDIA , INDONESIA and PERSIA . They were highly cosmopolitan people . And that culture was heavily influenced by HINDU beliefs adopted from INDIA . It helped in establishing and maintaining a vast system of lucrative trade networks across the region connecting the INDIAN Ocean and Eastern ASIA . CHAM people also developed the first and oldest native South-East ASIAN language . It was being written down around 350 AD , predating first KHMER , MON , MALAY texts by centuries as such . The kingdom of CHAMPA had multiethnic population . It consisted of AUSTRONESIAN CHAMIC-Speaking people which constituted majority of its demography . On the other hand HINDUISM , adopted through conquest and conflicts from neighbouring FUNAN in the fourth century AD , shaped the art and culture of CHAMPA for centuries . Reflection of which could be seen in CHAM HINDU statues and red bricks temples . A former religious centre MY SON and a CHAMPA main port city HOI AN are now world heritage city . Many CHAM people adhered to ISLAM in the tenth century through conversion . However , the ruling Dynasty adopted the faith in the seventeenth century . Such converted people were called BANI ( NI TUC ) . There are , however , the BECAM ( CHIEM TAC ) who still follow and preserve the HINDU faith and beliefs . They follow HINDU rituals and festivals . The BECAM is one of the two surviving non-indic indigenous HINDU people in the world . The other is the BALINESE HINDUISM of BALI of INDONESIA .






VIRBHADRAVARMAN was the King of CHAMPA from 1441 AD to 1444 AD . He was the grandson of a great King like JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-VI . But his grandmother Queen PARAMESVARI was a concubine of King JAYA SIMHAVARMAN-VI . He was also from VRSU DYNASTY of CHAMPA . He was the nephew of his predecessor King INDRAVARMAN-VI . His religion was HINDUISM . But much is not known about him . And he was succeeded by an unknown King probably called MAHA KALI. According to the VIETNAMESE Cronicles MAHA VIJAYA had usurped the throne from MAHA KALI . In 1444 AD , war broke out between CHAMPA and DAI VIET . And the King of DAI VIET , LE NHAN TONG sent a fleet from NGHE AN to the coast of BINH DINH . He ransacked the CHAM capital and captured MAHA VIJAYA in 1446 AD . MAHA VIJAYA was put behind the bars in HANOI . And his brother MAHA KALI , who was previously overthrown by MAHA VIJAYA , was installed again as a puppet King of CHAMPA . From 1446 AD to 1460 AD all most all monarchs were puppets . In 1460 AD , MAHA SAJAN took over the reign of CHAMPA . He ruled CHAMPA from 1460 AD to 1471 AD . His predecessor was MAHA SAYA . And 1471 AD was the year of the fall of CHAMPA . In a reaction to a CHAM raid against HOA CHAU, the Emperor of DAI VIET , LE THANH TONG invaded CHAMPA . VIETNAMESE captured the CHAM capital of VIJAYA . They butchered more than 60,000 people and imprisoned another 30,000 . PAN-LO TOU-TS’IUAN was captured . He became ill and died on junk taking him away . This was the final defeat of CHAMPA . Later it was divided into three principalities under the protection of DAI VIET .


By the late fifteenth century , CHAMPA faced incessant wars of aggression which wiped out the CHAMPA Kingdom . One by one their provinces were annexed until CHAMPA was entirely absorbed in the seventeenth century . PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN was the Ruler of CHAMPA from 1780 AD to 1793 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN TA . He was born in BAL CANAR , PANDURANGA , CHAMPA . His predecessor was PO TISUNTIRAIDAPAGHOH . A descendant of PO SAKTIRAYDAPATIH , PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN was appointed the Ruler of CHAMPA with the title CAI CO by NYUYEN LORD . We all know that since 1771 AD , CHAMPA was victim of VIETNAMESE civil war . Thus the fate of CHAMPA was dependent on the outcome of the civil war between the TAY SON DYNASTY and the NYUYEN LORDS . PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN supported TAY SON rebels in 1782 AD . So , he was regarded as a traitor by NGUYEN ANH . In 1788 AD , NGUYEN ANH appointed PO KREI BREI and PO LADHUANPUGUH as co-ruĺer of CHAMPA . PO KREI BREI was a CHAMPA prince and a brother of PO TISUNTIRAIDAPURAN . In 1790 AD , NGUYEN ANH retook GIA DINH (PRESENTLY THE CITY OF HO CHI MINH) . At the same time we should also know that NGUYEN ANH was the founding Emperor of NGUYEN DYNASTY . It was the last Dynasty of VIETNAM . His Dynasty would rule the unified territories that constitutes modern day VIETNAM until 1945 AD . Anyway , PO KREI and PO LADHUANPUGUH when jointly were appointed co-ruĺer of CHAMPA by NGUYEN ANH , PO KREI BREI was a civilian governor with the title CHURONG CO , while PO LADHUANPUGUH was the military governor with title like CAI CO . Since then CHAMPA was regarded as province of VIETNAM rather than an independent country . In 1795 AD , however , PO KREI BREI was deposed and he with his family was forced to seek refuse in CAMBODIA .


After PO KREI BREI was deposed , PO LADHUANPUGUH was promoted to CHUONG CO of CHAMPA . Now he was the sole ruler of CHAMPA . During his period a MALAY nobleman TUAN PHAOW revolted against the NGUYEN LORDS in 1796 AD . It was PO LADHUANPUGUH who helped NGUYEN LORDS to put down rebellion . In the following year , TUAN PHAOW was defeated and fled to KELANTAN . But PO LADHUANPUGUH died in 1799 AD . He was succeeded by PO SAONG NHUNG CENG who ruled CHAMPA from 1799 AD to 1822 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN CHAN . He joined the NGUYEN army in 1790 AD . He was appointed as the Viceroy or the Deputy Ruler of CHAMPA in 1794 AD . He was succeeded by PO KLAN THU in 1822 AD who ruled CHAMPA from 1822 AD to 1828 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN VINH . He was first appointed as a Viceroy in 1807 AD and then he succeeded to PO SAONG NHUNG CENG after his death in 1822 AD amid iñternal tussle between the VIETNAMESE Emperor MINH MANG and the VIETNAMESE General LE VAN DUYET for the next ruler of CHAMPA . He was succeeded by PO PHAOK THE who ruled CHAMPA from 1829 AD to 1832 AD . His VIETNAMESE name was NGUYEN VAN THURA . He was appointed by the Viceroy of Southern VIETNAM , LE VAN DUYET without the permission of VIETNAMESE Emperor MINH MANG . PO PHAOK THE was granted the VIETNAMESE title like THUAN THANH TRAN KHAM SAI THONG BINH CAI CO . And PO DHAR KAOK was appointed as his Viceroy . During his reign CHAMPA ended its relationship with the HUE COÙRT OF VIETNAM . Instead they only sent tribute to LE VAN DUYET, the Viceroy of the southern VIETNAM or COCHINCHINA . But soon after the death of LE VAN DUYET in 1832 AD , Emperor MINH MANG of VIETNAM appointed new Viceroy of Southern VIETNAM and CHAMPA was annexed by VIETNAM . PO PHAOK THE and his Deputy PO DHAR KAOK were captured and brought to the HUE COÙRT where PÒ PHAOK THE was granted the VIETNAMESE title like DIEN AN BA first and then in 1835 AD , both — PO PHAOK THE and PO DHAR KAOK were executed by Emperor MINH MANG of VIETNAM . PO PHAOK THE was the last ruler of CHAMPA .